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This article covers in-line process monitoring of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods of laser and electron beam (e-beam) powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). It focuses on methods that monitor the component directly throughout the build process. This article is organized by the type of AM process and by the physics of the monitoring method. The discussion covers two types of monitoring possible with the PBF process: monitoring the area of the powder bed and component and monitoring the melt pool created by the laser or e-beam. Methods for layer monitoring include optical and thermal methods that monitor light reflected or emitted in the visible and infrared wavelengths, respectively. Monitoring methods for laser directed-energy deposition (DED) discussed are those that measure the size and shape of the melt pool, the temperature of the melt pool, and the plasma generated by the laser as it interacts with the molten metal.

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Thomas L. Starr, In-Line Process Monitoring of Powder-Bed Fusion and Directed-Energy Deposition Processes, Additive Manufacturing Processes, Vol 24, ASM Handbook, Edited By David L. Bourell, William Frazier, Howard Kuhn, Mohsen Seifi, ASM International, 2020, p 287–297,

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