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This article focuses on four industrial additive manufacturing approaches that are used to create polymer parts. The first section focuses on material extrusion, providing information on lumped-parameter material flow models and higher-fidelity models developed to estimate temperature distribution. The second section covers polymer powder-bed sintering/ fusion, discussing the different levels of scale used to address modeling and the impact of process settings: thermodynamics at the powder-bed surface, consolidation of adjacent particles in the fusion process, and fusion and molecular-level behavior within particles. The third section on vat photopolymerization (VPP) discusses two primary approaches to modeling VPP processes, namely a lumped-parameter approach to estimate cured regions in the vat, known as the Jacobs model, and a high-fidelity, continuum approach that uses finite-element methods. The final section is devoted to material jetting, focusing on simulations used to study droplet generation at the nozzle and droplet impact.

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Neil Hopkinson, David Rosen, Modeling for Polymer Additive Manufacturing Processes, Additive Manufacturing Processes, Vol 24, ASM Handbook, Edited By David L. Bourell, William Frazier, Howard Kuhn, Mohsen Seifi, ASM International, 2020, p 69–78,

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