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This article provides a rough estimate of the basic parameters, including coil efficiency, power, and frequency in induction heating of billets, rods, and bars. It focuses on the frequency selection for heating solid cylinders made of nonmagnetic metals, frequency selection when heating solid cylinders made from nonmagnetic alloys, and frequency selection when heating solid cylinders made from magnetic alloys. The article describes several design concepts that can be used for induction billet heating, namely, static heating and progressive/continuous heating. It presents the four major factors associated with the location and magnitude of subsurface overheating: frequency, refractory, final temperature, and power distribution along the heating line. The article summarizes the pros and cons of using a single power supply. It also reviews the design features of modular systems, and concludes with information on the temperature profile modeling software.

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Doug Brown, Valery Rudnev, Peter Dickson, Induction Heating of Billets, Rods, and Bars, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 330–345,

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