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The warm and hot working of metals provide the ability to shape important materials into component shapes that are useful in a variety of applications requiring strength, toughness, and ductility. This article focuses on a variety of metals that can be hot or warm worked, and describes the characteristics and processing considerations of each metal. It discusses forging because it is a versatile metalworking process and performed at cold, warm, and hot working temperatures. The article also presents the applications of steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, superalloys, and copper alloys.

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Chester J. Van Tyne, John Walters, Warm and Hot Working Applications, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 293–301,

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