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This article focuses on the frequently encountered causes of induction coil failures and typical failure modes in fabrication of hardening inductors, tooth-by-tooth gear-hardening inductors, clamshell inductors, contactless inductors, split-return inductors, butterfly inductors, and inductors for heating internal surfaces. It discusses the current density distribution and the skin effect, the proximity effect, and crack-propagation specifics. The article also describes selected properties of copper alloys, the electromagnetic edge effect of coil copper turn, and the effect of magnetic flux concentrators on coil life. It also reviews the importance of having appropriate and reliable electrical contacts.

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Valery Rudnev, Systematic Analysis of Induction Coil Failures and Prevention, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 646–672,

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