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Induction heating has the ability to concentrate the electromagnetic field and heat within a certain area of the workpiece. This article provides a detailed discussion on the end heating of bars, rods, and billets using solenoid inductors, oval inductors, and channel inductors. It reviews the importance of computer modeling in predicting the impact of different, interrelated, and nonlinear factors on the transitional and final thermal conditions of billets and bars. The article describes the most appropriate processes to improve end heating process effectiveness. Induction bending of narrow circumferential band of pipe or tube is also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on stress relieving of pipe ends and welded areas.

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Valery Rudnev, Induction Heating of Selective Regions, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 346–358,

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