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Induction hardening involves multiple processing steps of heating and quenching which presents opportunity for errors and defects. This article discusses the common problems associated with induction hardening of shafts as well as the methods to diagnose, inspect, and prevent them. In addition to the major defects such as laps and seams that remain after induction hardening, microstructural transformation, decarburization, residual stress, and grain size, as well as variations in carbon content, composition, or microstructure can also affect the hardened part.

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Gregory A. Fett, Arthur Griebel, John Tartaglia, Defects and Abnormal Characteristics of Induction Hardened Components, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 228–239,

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