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An investigation was conducted to determine why 16 out of 139 pipe bends cracked during hot induction bending. The pipe conformed to API 5L X65 PSL2 line pipe standards and measured 1016 mm (40 in.) in diam with a wall thickness of 18.5 mm. A metallurgical cross section was removed along a crack on the extrados to document the crack morphology using optical microscopy. In addition to cracking, golden-yellow streaks were visible at the extrados, and the composition was examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Based on the results, investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced.

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2019. "Processing Errors and Defects", Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Larry Berardinis

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