A commercial hybrid-iron golf club fractured during normal use. The club fractured through its cast aluminum alloy hosel. Optical analysis revealed casting pores through 20% of the hosel thickness. Mechanical properties were determined from characterization results, then used to construct a finite element model to analyze material performance under failure conditions. In addition, a full scale structural test was conducted to determine failure strength. It was concluded that the club failed not from ground impact but from a force reversal at the bottom of the downswing. Large moments generated during the downswing aggravated by manufacturing defects and stress concentration combined to create an overload condition.
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