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This chapter discusses the effects of heat treatment on the surface of steel. It begins with a description of the formation of oxide scales on the surface of steel at various temperatures and the consequences of the presence of carbon as cementite during oxidation. This is followed by a section discussing the formation of oxides beneath the surface of steel. Methods for the determination of the depth of a decarburized layer of eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels are then provided. The chapter further discusses the processes involved in carburizing and the interacting factors that determine the final characteristics of a carburized case. It ends with a section describing the structure of carbonitrided ferritic surfaces that are described in terms of two regions, namely the compound layer and diffusion layer.

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1999. "Surface Oxidation, Decarburization, and Carburizing", Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels, Leonard E. Samuels

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