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Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin specimen. This article discusses fundamentals of the technique, especially for solving materials problems. Background information is provided to help understand basic operations and principles, including instrumentation, the physics of signal generation and detection, image formation, electron diffraction, and spectrometry techniques with data analysis.

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