The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD experiment are then covered. The article further describes the processes involved in sample preparation that are critical to the success or usefulness of an EBSD experiment. It also discusses the applications of EBSD to bulk samples and the development of EBSD indexing methods.