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Abstract

This article provides detailed information on the instrumentation and principles of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It begins with a description of the primary components of a conventional SEM instrument. This is followed by a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents the details of SEM-based techniques and specialized SEM instruments. It ends with example applications of various SEM modes.

Abstract

The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD experiment are then covered. The article further describes the processes involved in sample preparation that are critical to the success or usefulness of an EBSD experiment. It also discusses the applications of EBSD to bulk samples and the development of EBSD indexing methods.

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2019. "Microscopy and Microanalysis", Materials Characterization

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