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This article provides a detailed account of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), covering the basic principles of PIXE analysis and calibration and quality-assurance protocols employed. A comparative study on PIXE and x-ray fluorescence is then presented. The article also discusses the applications of PIXE in atmospheric physics and chemistry, external proton milliprobes and historical analysis, and PIXE microprobes.

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Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, 2019 ed., ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2019, p 372–377,

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