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This article provides a detailed account of X-ray spectroscopy used for elemental identification and determination. It begins with an overview of the operating principles of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, as well as a comparison of the operating principles of wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This is followed by a discussion on the mechanism and effects of X-ray radiation, X-ray emission, and X-ray absorption. The article then discusses components used, operation, and applications of WDS and EDS. Some of the factors and processes involved in sample preparation for XRF analysis are also included. The article further provides information on the practical procedure for and the applications of WDS and EDS qualitative and quantitative analyses.

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