This article presents a summary of the chemical fundamentals, general techniques, limitations, and applications of chemical spot testing as well as a brief overview of innovations and specialized applications. A list of selected reagents, including abbreviated instructions for preparing the reagent solution(s), for performing the spot test, and for interpreting the results, is also included. The article discusses two specialized applications of qualitative analysis, namely illicit drug identification and spacecraft drinking water quality testing. It also contains tables listing common presumptive tests for detecting anions and cations in aqueous solution.
April A. Hill, Chemical Spot Tests and Presumptive Tests, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, 2019 ed., ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2019, p 201–216, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
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