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This article is a brief account of low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy (LEIS) for determining the atomic structure of solid surfaces. It begins with a description of the general principles of LEIS. This is followed by a section providing information on the equipment used for LEIS. Various steps involved in the sample preparation, calibration, and data analysis are then discussed. The article concludes with a section on the applications and interpretation of LEIS in material analysis, including discussion on surface structural analysis, layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth, and low-energy atom-scattering spectroscopy.

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Kenji Umezawa, Low-Energy Ion-Scattering Spectroscopy, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, 2019 ed., ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2019, p 185–191,

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