This article is a detailed account of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) for elemental analysis. It begins with a discussion on the historical background of OES and development trends in OES methods. This is followed by a description of the general principles and optical systems of OES, along with various types of emission sources commonly used for OES. Some of the processes involved in calibration and quantification of OES for direct solids analysis by the ratio method are then described. The article ends with a discussion on the applications of each type of emission sources.
This article focuses on some of the factors pertinent to atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It begins by describing the working principle, critical components, and construction of flame atomic absorption instrumentation. This is followed by sections discussing various types of interferences in AAS, namely vaporization, ionization, matrix interferences, and background correction. Some of the methods for the analysis of microliter-sized samples and methods of standard additions to the sample solution for generating calibration standards are then reviewed. The article concludes with a section on processes involved in matrix matching.
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