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This article describes the changes in structure and properties that occur when cold worked metals and alloys are annealed. Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth are the three stages of structural change that occur when cold-worked metal is annealed. The driving force and extent of structural or property changes may depend on alloy structure and the degree of prior work.

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Annealing and Recrystallization, Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys, Vol 4E, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2016, p 38–43,

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