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This article briefly discusses the annealing practices for refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium and their alloys. It also presents the applications and properties of these metals and their alloys.

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John L. Johnson, Annealing of Refractory Metals, Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys, Vol 4E, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2016, p 664–666,

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