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Cast and wrought coppers can be strengthened by cold working. This article provides information on minor alloying elements, such as beryllium, silicon, nickel, tin, zinc, and chromium, used to strengthen copper. It details annealing and recrystallization and grain growth characteristics of copper. The article also discusses the tensile-stress-relaxation behavior of selected types of copper wires.

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Annealing and Recrystallization of Coppers, Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys, Vol 4E, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2016, p 325–334,

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