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This article describes the effects of alloying and heat treatment on the metastable transition precipitates that occur in age hardenable aluminum alloys. Early precipitation stages are less well understood than later ones. This article details the aging sequence and characteristics of precipitates that occur in the natural aging and artificial aging of Al-Mg-Si-(Cu) alloys, Al-Mg-Cu alloys, microalloyed Al-Mg-Cu-(Ag, Si) alloys, aluminum-lithium-base alloys, and Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) alloys. Crystal structure, composition, dimensions, and aging conditions of precipitates are detailed. Effects of reversion, duplex annealing, and retrogression and re-aging are included.

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John Banhart, Age Hardening of Aluminum Alloys, Heat Treating of Nonferrous Alloys, Vol 4E, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2016, p 214–239,

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