Heat Treating of Nickel and Its Alloys
This article provides information on nickel alloying elements, and the heat treatment processes of various nickel alloys for applications requiring corrosion resistance and/or high-temperature strength. These processes are homogenization, annealing, solution annealing, solution treating, stabilization treatment, age hardening, stress relieving, and stress equalizing. Discussion of furnaces, fixtures, and atmospheres is included. Nickel alloys used for the heat treatment processes include corrosion-resistant nickel alloys, heat-resistant nickel alloys, nickel-beryllium alloys, special-purpose alloys such as nitinol shape memory alloys, low-expansion alloys, electrical-resistance alloys and soft magnetic alloys. Finally, the article focuses on heat treatment modeling for selecting the appropriate heat treatment process.
This article describes the heat treatment of wrought solid-solution and precipitation-hardening alloys with a focus on the major families of wrought nickel alloys. It also provides information on the heat treatment of some representative solid-solution alloys in the Monel (Ni-Cu), Inconel (Ni-Cr-Mo), Hastelloy (Ni-Mo-Cr), and Incoloy (Ni-Fe-Cr) families of alloys. The heat treatment processes for gamma prime nickel alloys, gamma prime nickel-iron superalloys, and gamma double-prime nickel-iron superalloys are also included. The article also provides information on age-hardenable alloys, and the effects of cold work on aging response and grain growth with examples.