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zirconium alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... hub. (0.7×) In addition to the pock-marked surface, the damaged impeller is peppered with corrosion pitting. The worst area of pitting is shown in Figure 4 . Zirconium and zirconium alloys are extremely resistant to corrosives, including the aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) service environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on a study on the dispersion strengthening of copper-zirconium alloys by internal oxidation ( Ref 2 ), the homogeneous phase was produced by the rapid movement of the oxidation front through the material. This phenomenon reduced the time necessary for substantial zirconium diffusion away from the original...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... formation Transition, rare earth, alkaline-earth metals, and their alloys (includes titanium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, and thorium) Brittle hydrides often form preferentially where the stress is highest. The first three types are usually observed at ambient temperatures and are closely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth, alkaline-earth metals, and their alloys (includes titanium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, and thorium) Brittle hydrides often...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract During the preproduction stages of forging, an initial batch of 50 mm (2 in.) diam Al-4Cu alloy (L77) extruded bar stock material was found to be cracking randomly. Failure analysis was conducted to determine the metallurgical factors underlying the phenomenon. Microexamination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to describe what we now refer to as SCC due to the resemblance between stress corrosion cracks and cracks in seasoned wood. 1 Today, SCC has been identified in many alloy systems ranging from the simple brass alloys of the late 19 th century to complicated titanium and zirconium alloys used in some...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... handling wavelength-dispersive spectrometry CHEMICAL ANALYSIS is often a useful tool for failure analysis. There are two main categories of chemical analysis that are often used by failure analysts: Bulk composition evaluation: often performed in order to determine whether the correct alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ). Fig. 4 SEM micrograph of a resistor with a partially delaminated termination. The light-appeahng portion is the lead-tin alloy on the surface of the termination. The dark-appearing area beneath the lead-tin alloy is exposed alumina. Fig. 5 SEM micrograph of the delaminated termination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition of the sand-cast component was identified via optical emission spectroscopy and is comparable to an aluminum sand-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... calculations for the affected components showed adequate safety margins well within regulation limits. This was confirmed by a nearly 30-year period of satisfactory service and component performance. The oleo cylinder forging was identified as an age-hardenable aluminum alloy (type 7014) of British origin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are disruptions between the crystal lattice of individual grains, and this disruption provides a source of strengthening by pinning the movement of dislocations (so long as the temperature is not elevated into the creep range for significant dislocation climb). Thus, a finer-grain alloy imparts more grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were consistent with low alloy steel with patches of silver, apparently remnant segments of cage material. The very thin and rippled fragment was found to be Titanium based, the spectral results being most similar to a Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo as evidenced by the presence of aluminum and zirconium ( Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lattice of individual grains, and this disruption provides a source of strengthening by pinning the movement of dislocations (so long as the temperature is not elevated into the creep range for significant dislocation climb). Thus, a finer-grain alloy imparts more grain-boundary regions for improved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of titanium alloys especially intended to be used in living bodies began with the introduction of new alloys using biocompatible β stabilizer elements, such as iron, tantalum, zirconium, tin, and niobium. [ 3 ] The manufacturing of implant materials generally requires advanced casting and/or continuous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... temperatures (consistent with the large grains) and tends to embrittle the alloy. It is possible that this phase may have contributed to the intergranular attack. Recommendations were offered with respect to the use of a dry film lubricant over the cadmium coated region, and the possibility of choosing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or precious-metal filler metals is limited to either ultradry hydrogen (AWS 7) or vacuum (AWS 10C). Superalloys or high-temperature alloys that contain reactive elements (titanium, aluminum, beryllium, zirconium, and so on) of the order of ≥1% form very stable oxides, and, once formed, these oxides can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chloride solutions Zirconium alloys Aqueous chloride solutions, organic liquids, I 2 at 350 °C (660 °F) This list is not exhaustive. As metals continue to be used in more extreme environments, discovery of new metal-environment combinations that produce SCC will continue. Indeed, many metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., ASTM , 1973 . 4. Kapadia et al. , The Influence of Nitrogen, Titanium and Zirconium on the Boron Hardenability Effect in Constructional Alloy Steels , Trans. Met. Soc. AIME , Vol 242 , Aug 1968 , p 1689 . Selected References Selected References • Fisher J.W...