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zirconium

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Post-service destructive evaluation was performed on two commercially pure zirconium pump impellers. One impeller failed after short service in an aqueous hydrochloric acid environment. Its exposed surfaces are bright and shiny, covered with pockmarks, and peppered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the transformed surface region obtained during simulated tests ( Ref 1 ). The other phase found in the banded region appeared more homogeneous ( Fig. 5 ). The overall zirconium and oxygen contents in the homogeneous phase were higher than in the dissociated intermetallics. Based on a study on the dispersion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... hardness AZ UNS T30102 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture The mandrel shown in Fig. 1 was part of a rolling tool used for mechanically joining two tubes before they were installed in a nuclear reactor. The operation consisted of expanding the end of a zirconium tube into a stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... as to reduce vibration. In addition, the exchanger was very thoroughly packaged for its return to the plant site ( Figure 8 ). The heaters are made of tantalum because of the catastrophic increase in corrosion rate that zirconium suffers in boiling sulphuric acid above concentrations of 70%. Due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-earth metals, and their alloys (includes titanium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, and thorium) Brittle hydrides often form preferentially where the stress is highest. The first three types are usually observed at ambient temperatures and are closely related to one another. Hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and their alloys (includes titanium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, and thorium) Brittle hydrides often form preferentially where the stress is highest. The first three types are usually observed at ambient temperatures and are closely related to one another. Hydrogen damage usually manifests itself...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the group 2 sections (see Fig. 11 ) determined that the resistor substrate was high-purity alumina. The metal portion of the cermet metallization was silver rich; the ceramic portion was zirconium rich. Significant amounts of silicon were also detected, most likely present as an oxide or glass former...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...–0.61 0.4–1.2 Titanium + Zirconium 0.017 0.2 (max) Iron 0.28–0.44 0.5 (max) Nickel 0.06 0.2 (max) Zinc 0.10–0.17 0.2 (max) Lead 0.002 0.05 (max) Tin 0.0023 0.05 (max) Chromium 0.08 0.2 (max) Aluminum bal bal Fig. 7 X-ray map obtained with an SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a zirconium oxide abrasive is often used to prepare steels for this type of analysis, because zirconium is rarely specified in steels. Thus, if a small piece of zirconium oxide does get embedded in the metal, it will not affect the analysis. The actual size of the “small chunk” required varies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... , private communication, 7 March 1975 . 3. Barsom J.M. , Fatigue-Crack Growth Under Variable-Amplitude Loading in ASTM A514 Grade B Steel , STP 536, ASTM , 1973 . 4. Kapadia et al. , The Influence of Nitrogen, Titanium and Zirconium on the Boron Hardenability Effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on some metals according to a cubic-rate law. Cubic kinetics reported for the oxidation of zirconium and hafnium are explained as a combination of diffusion-limited scale formation and oxygen dissolution into the metal ( Ref 3 ). In other cases, cubic kinetics have been explained as a superposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... … … Aluminum 0.014 … … Vanadium <0.001 … … Niobium <0.001 … … Zirconium <0.001 … … Titanium 0.001 … … Boron 0.0001 … … Calcium <0.0001 … … Tungsten <0.01 … … Cobalt 0.001 … … Lead <0.001 … … Microhardness versus distance from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.01 Silicon 0.09 Copper 0.58 Titanium 0.27 Nickel &lt;0.01 Lead &lt;0.01 Tin &lt;0.01 Beryllium &lt;0.01 Vanadium 0.01 Zirconium &lt;0.01 Chemical composition of AA 712.0 [<xref rid="c9001753-ref1" ref-type="bibr">1</xref>] Table 2 Chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as evidenced by the presence of aluminum and zirconium ( Fig. 12 ). This material was similar to the traces of smeared material found on the bearing ball adjacent to a spalled region. Follow-up questions led to the discovery of an unsubmitted and unidentified beveled gear mating housing that was composed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to describe what we now refer to as SCC due to the resemblance between stress corrosion cracks and cracks in seasoned wood. 1 Today, SCC has been identified in many alloy systems ranging from the simple brass alloys of the late 19 th century to complicated titanium and zirconium alloys used in some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) Copper 0.47 0.30–0.7 Manganese 0.47 0.30–0.7 Magnesium 2.90 2.2–3.2 Chromium 0.005 … Nickel 0.03 0.10 (max) Zinc 5.31 5.2–6.2 Titanium 0.04 0.20 (max) (b) Vanadium 0.01 … Zirconium &lt;0.005 … Total impurities … 0.05 (max) (a) From Key To Aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the components is discerned. If a polished, homogeneous, single-phase sample (e.g., an unetched silicon wafer) was placed in an SEM, little or no contrast would be observed using either a secondary or backscattered electron technique. Fig. 5 Example of a layered structure of copper, niobium, and zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Cr, then the SCC resistance may be improved. There is evidence that additions of dispersoid-forming elements, such as chromium, manganese, zirconium, titanium, and vanadium, tend to reduce susceptibility to slow crack growth, which may be due to changing grain-boundary composition through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can be prevented by deoxidizing with titanium or zirconium or by combined titanium and aluminum ( Ref 18 ). Thermal embrittlement of maraging steels occurs when they have been heated above 1095 °C (2000 °F) and are slowly cooled through, or held within, the temperature range of 980 to 815 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... number of the components is discerned. If a polished, homogeneous, single-phase sample were placed in an SEM (e.g., an unetched silicon wafer), little or no contrast would be observed using either technique. Fig. 5 Example of a layered structure of copper, niobium, and zirconium. (a) Imaged using...