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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The surface of a hook did not possess the smooth and shiny zinc bloom surface normally observed on hot galvanized steel parts but was matte and rough. Large cracks were observed in the zinc layer. The hook was made of silicon-killed alloy steel 41Cr4. A silicon content of 0.27% was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Near-surface porosity in zinc die castings that were subsequently plated with copper, nickel, and bright chromium was causing blemishes in the plating. Identifying die casting turbulence and hot spots were keys to process modifications that subsequently allowed porosity to be greatly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... weld was 0.54%, whereas that of the submerged arc weld was 0.86%. After being weighed, the specimens were submerged in molten zinc for 850 h. Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, 100x 2% nital-etched micrographs) supported the conclusions that the vat failed due to molten-zinc corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... revealed by EDS analysis of the debris to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum. Thus the debris was interpreted to be the scale from ID of the tube with boiler feedwater chemicals from the attemperation spray. The likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... or excessive impurities, such as lead, tin, or cadmium. This composition problem with zinc alloys was recognized many years ago, and particular attention has been directed toward ensuring that high-purity zinc is used. This corrective measure reportedly resulted in virtual elimination of this type of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Lakes in zinc die castings are areas encompassed by irregular lines or waves on flat or slightly contoured surfaces which are intended to look uniform. The laked areas have to be removed by polishing before the castings can be plated. This adds considerably to the overall cost of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Fig. 1 Copper-zinc alloy cooling-tower hardware that failed by SCC and dezincification. (a), (b), and (c) Photographs showing some of the castings that broke into two or more parts in service. 1 3 ×. In (b), separations other than those second from left and second from right were produced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several case-hardened and zinc-plated carbon-manganese steel wheel studs fractured in a brittle manner after very limited service life. The fracture surfaces of both front and rear studs showed no sign of fatigue beach marks or deformation in the form of shear lips that would indicate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0048674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... to clamp onto the framework prior to springback. The heat treatment cycle of the fasteners consisted of austenitizing, quenching, tempering to obtain a tempered martensite microstructure, acid cleaning, zinc electroplating, coating with a clear dichromate and thereafter baking to remove the nascent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A die-cast zinc adapter used in a snowthrower failed catastrophically in a brittle overload manner. The component had a chemical composition similar to standard zinc alloy ZA-27 (UNS Z35840), although the iron content was much higher and the copper slightly lower. The mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of LME as a failure analysis tool is also discussed. fasteners nozzles valves fracture mercury lead cadmium zinc structural alloys cracking cleavage radiography fracture toughness 5083-O (wrought aluminum magnesium alloy) UNS A95083 10Zn-2Pb (free-machining brass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fracture surfaces were coated with zinc oxide. It was concluded that the failure resulted from improper repairs and/or adjustments, including the use of a cosmetic zinc oxide cream as a lubricant. The cream initiated deterioration of the originally ductile plastic, causing it to become brittle and fragile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... conditions (the clamp is the cathode of a galvanic cell with zinc) and the brittle nature of the cracks, the failures were diagnosed as hydrogen-stress cracking. Laboratory experiments were conducted to substantiate the above diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of annealing and the hydrogen-stress cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... compound, nickel phosphide. The use of a brazing alloy containing phosphorus was unsuitable on two counts and a quaternary alloy containing silver, copper, cadmium and zinc, such as those in group AG1 or AG2 of BS 1845 would be more suitable. However, because corrosive problems experienced in these units...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... scanning electron microscopy were used to examine samples from the tubes. An energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis was carried out to evaluate the zinc distribution. Results showed that the failure was due to dezincification. Replacement of the tubes with new tubes fabricated from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... analysis revealed dark thumbnail regions at the fracture origins and a very narrow and uniform shear lip. The thumbnail region exhibited zinc deposits with no apparent fracture detail, indicating preexisting cracks that had occurred before galvanizing. The balance of the fracture exhibited a transgranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... environment in a coastal area. It was recommended that proper chemical analysis of the zinc-aluminum alloy be carried out as a quality control procedure. Die castings Marine environments Zamak 3 Intergranular corrosion Intergranular fracture Selected References • Forms of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the action of liquid zinc and tin in combination with static and torsional stresses on the spring wire. As a corrective measure, Na, Sn, and Zn which were present in pigmented oil used as a lubricant during spring winding was cleaned thoroughly by the spring manufacturer before shipment to remove all...