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x-ray diffraction analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be homogenous and had no banded structure. However, x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of up to 6% retained austenite which likely caused the tube to buckle during the 910 °C heat treating procedure. tube buckling retained austenite bainitic steel distortion x-ray diffraction analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... scanning electron rricroscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy Results indicated that the alloy composition was representative of alloy 800. Corrosion or Wear Deposits X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the carbides were primarily chromium based (Cr 23 C 7 and Cr 7 C 3 ). The sooty substance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Failure initiated from the spring inside coil surface. Examination of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy showed no evidence of fatigue. Final fracture occurred in torsion. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed high inner-diameter residual stresses, indicating inadequate stress relief...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Chemical analysis of the cracked metal showed a slightly higher level of carbon than in the component that did not crack. X-ray diffraction studies of material from the fractured dome showed a very low level of retained austenite, and chemical analysis showed a slightly higher content of carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... both combustion products from the cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber, were analyzed using elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical polarization techniques were also utilized to estimate corrosion rates. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Breech...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of deposits scraped from the aluminum spacer and the vellum gasket were identified by x-ray diffraction as molybdenum disulfide. Deposits taken from the nickel-plated steel housing were not completely identified. Analysis indicated, however, that nickel formate dihydrate was one of the constituents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a preferential attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... from Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and x-ray diffraction. It was shown that degradation is driven by chemical and mechanical differences, oxide growth, depletion, and recrystallization, the combined effect of which results in exfoliation, spallation, and mechanical thinning. turbine vanes thermal degradation high-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pest, a type of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... observed. Almost all tubes were observed to be 80% blocked at the inner diametral surfaces. The corrosion product was removed from the tubes and analyzed. Tables 1 and 2 provide the results of the analysis of the corrosion products. X-ray Diffraction Analysis. Table 1 X-ray Diffraction Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... lists the composition of the corrosion products as obtained from one pipe sample. X-ray Diffraction Analysis Table 1 X-ray Diffraction Analysis Compound Approx. wt% Cu 2 0 50± CuCO 3 ·Cu(OH) 2 40 Amorphous Balance X-ray Fluorescence Analysis Table 2 X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... in the domestic water supplied to the property. The quantity of dissolved calcium carbonates in the tested water samples that were tested, was observed to be fairly high ( Tables 5 ) but generally typical of waters in Northeast Florida. Results of X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Four Corrosion Product Samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Chemical and X-ray Diffraction Analysis Simulation Tests The salt deposition mechanism is visualized as follows. Pellets that enter the indurator contain small amounts of impurities, particularly alkali chlorides that are primarily derived from the flux addition. The combustion gas is oxidizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... strength in explosive cladded plates fabricated by higher impact energies [ 8 , 11 ]. The x-ray diffraction analysis of all fractured surfaces reveals existence of steel as dominant material on the fracture surface. Figure 6 depicts this analysis for fracture surface of sample No. 4 as an example. So...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to 0.30 mm) deep. Other areas adjacent to the primary fatigue crack also showed small fatigue cracks initiating from corrosion pits (Fig.). The corrosion pitting on the tubing ID was primarily on one side of the tubing. X-ray diffraction analysis of the scale taken from the area in question showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology Transmission...