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wrought iron alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy ISO 5832-4 Wrought cobalt-chrome-tungsten- nickel alloy ISO 5832-5 Wrought cobalt-nickel-chrome- molybdenum alloy ISO 5832-6 Wrought cobalt-chrome-nickel- molybdenum-iron alloy ISO 5832-7 Wrought cobalt-nickel-chrome- molybdenum-tungsten-iron alloy ISO 5832...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Scientifiques Revue de Métallurgie , Octobre , 1989 , pp. 625 – 637 6. ISO 5832-1:2007 , Implants for surgery—Metallic materials—Part 1: Wrought stainless steel , Part 2: Commercially pure titanium, part 3: Titanium alloys 7. ASTM F138-08 , tandard Specification for Wrought 18Chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by chemical analysis which shows a very low content of carbon and any alloying elements. The major features to be seen in the micro of wrought iron are the numerous stringy slag inclusions. This is inherent in the process of making wrought iron as it was produced back in the days of the late nineteenth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cast iron low-alloy steel malleable irons pressure die casting semisolid casting squeeze casting FAILURES OF CASTINGS, like the failures of wrought materials, can occur from service conditions, improper design and/or materials selection, manufacturing deficiencies, or a combination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that voids generally grew in the wrought material by uniform general corrosion. Tunneling or worm-holing was also observed, whereby void extension occurred by initiating daughter voids probably at flaws or other inhomogeneities. Selective attack occurred within the fusion zone, i.e., within the cast two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not only having a similar amount of the alloying element in question, but also having the same matrix element and a similar concentration of alloying element. For example, it may not be a good idea to use a nickel-base superalloy with 15% chromium as a calibration check for an iron-base stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Fontana M. G. , Corrosion Engineering , McGraw-Hill , New York , 1978 . 13. Hummer C.W. Jr. , “ The Corrosion of Metals in Tropical Environments-Copper and Wrought Copper Alloys ,” Materials Protection , Vol. 7 , p. 41 , 1968 . Selected Reference Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and/or aluminum to form a protective layer of chromium or aluminum oxide (Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 ) scale to resist oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. These oxide scales are slow growing. When an alloy is under sulfidation attack, sulfides of chromium, iron, and nickel are likely to form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or calcium can be added to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys to progressively change the silicon lamellae into rounded particles, and phosphorus refines the size of silicon particles in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys ( Ref 26 ). Microsegregation in wrought alloys is a microstructural defect...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of working. With increased mechanical working, the dendrites deform and fracture, thus becoming increasingly elongated. A certain degree of alloy segregation occurs in all wrought products, and hot working can alleviate some of the inhomogeneity. However, if the ingot is badly segregated, hot working...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it is a list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of wrought aluminum bronze material (α phase). This microstructure was found in all of the specimens examined. The socket-weld material was dendritic in appearance ( Fig. 5 ), and no evidence of cracking was found in any of the sections examined. Fig. 4 Microstructure of pipe material, composed of α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... techniques. For example, EBM of titanium alloy results in finer structure compared to conventional casting techniques; corrosion resistance of EBM Ti-6Al-4V is different than wrought forms ( Ref 28 ). Another advantage of the extremely high build temperature in the EBM systems over the SLM systems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alloys, iron-chromium alloys, and brasses, either type of cracking can occur, depending on the metal-environment combination. Features of stress-corrosion cracked surfaces revealed by macroscopic and microscopic examination are discussed in the sections “Macroscopic Examination” and “Microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and copper alloys, in contact with a variety of liquids, chemistries, and substances. Analytical techniques employed include stereoscopic examination, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), temperature and pH testing, and metallographic analysis. The findings indicate that MIC is frequently the result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equivalent to the classification of hydrogen embrittlement in steels that is defined in Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Volume 1, ASM Handbook , as follows ( Ref 5 ): Hydrogen environmental embrittlement Hydrogen stress cracking Loss in tensile ductility...