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wrinkles

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Wrinkles form when metal flow into an area is greater than metal flow out More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Sheet forming failures divert resources from normal business activities and have significant bottom-line impact. This article focuses on the formation, causes, and limitations of four primary categories of sheet forming failures, namely necks, fractures/splits/cracks, wrinkles/loose...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 6 Trailing edge yielding and aluminide coating wrinkling associated with stress-rupture cracking on turbine airfoils More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 10 SEM backscatter electron (BEI) image documenting additional secondary stress-rupture cracks and wrinkled aluminide coating on the CCV-TE side of SX turbine blade casting More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 5 Loose metal is minimized with metal gainers and depressions. (a) Loose metal in central section of panel is eliminated by using metal gainers. (b) Depressions on punch gather loose metal to minimize wrinkles. Source: Ref 3 . Reprinted with permission from WorldAutoSteel More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) and extensive damage (“corn-cobbed”) to the HP rotor (right). Damage on the right normally results in engine shutdown Fig. 6 Trailing edge yielding and aluminide coating wrinkling associated with stress-rupture cracking on turbine airfoils Fig. 7 Entirely interdendritic stress-rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... failure modes. The potential failure modes are as follows. Possible Causes of Failure Silica phenolic modulus of elasticity change due to cure pressure. Wrinkles and/or secondary shear lines. Moisture pickup by silica phenolic during hydroclave cure. Modification to the convergent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the ends of some of the damaged tubes is shown in Figure 1 . At A is depicted the upper portion of a tube which had apparently only fractured, no obvious fusion being present. At B is shown the top portion of another tube at which incipient fusion of the broken end, together with a wrinkling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to approximately 2.5 in. (6.4 cm), exposing the outer surface of the pipeline. In areas away from the cracks, the coating appeared to be well bonded and was difficult to remove from the pipeline surface. Longitudinally oriented wrinkles in the coating were observed on the sides and lower surfaces along the entire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... instability in cone spinning and concluded that wrinkling on the prespun flange of the cone is caused by relief of the residual compressive stress that arises in the traction-free flange. The cone spinning instability is similar to the wrinkling phenomenon in deep drawing operations. Gur and Tirosh 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... the opposite side of the fracture indicated sufficient annealing as shown in Fig. 7 . As shown in Fig. 8 , the flaws produced by the wrinkles, being pressed down at. the deep drawing, were observed. Relatively sharp cracks were observed at the bottom of the these flaws. Fig. 7 Metallographical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Hydrogen-stress cracking External stress corrosion cracking Internal sulfide-stress cracking Hydrogen blistering Fatigue Miscellaneous causes Secondary loads Weldments to pipe surface Wrinkle bends Internal combustion Sabotage Longitudinal weld defects High...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... bands of wrinkled material and small white bubble structures in the two opposed areas where maximum strain was induced by the clamp. Scanning Electron Microscopy The fracture surface of the through crack could be divided into three regions ( Fig. 2 ). The first (zone A) was a band of long fibrils...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 1 ). Obvious localised attack marked by random corrosion pits with a maximum depth of 0.4 mm was observed on the outer surface of the tube. The inner surface had a uniform dark gray oxide layer, which was wrinkled and peeling off. Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... event. In secondary electron imaging, topographical differences in the gold plating such as wrinkling are more evident when imaged at lower accelerating voltage (a) than at higher accelerating voltage (b), showing how surface effects are more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages. This additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... penetration Inclusions Undercut Toe cracks Solidification cracks Girth-weld-specific flaws Low strength Hydrogen-assisted cold cracking Mechanical damage Gouges Dents Wrinkles External corrosion Uniform corrosion Localized corrosion Selective seam weld corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) of single-crystal turbine blade casting showing creep voids on the fracture surface. (b) Scanning electron microscopy backscatter electron image of stress-rupture cracks and wrinkled aluminide coating on concave trailing-edge side of single-crystal turbine blade casting. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or be of very little concern for another, despite their use of the same alloy. In dies, common causes of galling are stretching sheet metal beyond practical limits, tool fitting with poor alignment or insufficient die clearance for the given sheet thickness, wrinkles, the use of galling-susceptible tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metal beyond practical limits, tool fitting with poor alignment or insufficient die clearance for the given sheet thickness, wrinkles, the use of galling-susceptible tool steel, and rough finish on the surface of tools. Correct lubrication of the parts being drawn is essential to reduce friction, wear...