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working clearances

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the conclusion that the primary feed material was harder than the grinding plates, causing wear and eventual failure. Recommendations included reducing the clearance between the flutes and possible material changes. Grinding wheels, Materials substitution Milling Gray iron Abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... mechanics could work. A pilot hole was drilled with a 0.476 cm (0.19 in.) drill. The drill was held in a Jacobs chuck in a portable drill press that, in turn, was held to the workpiece by an electromagnet. After the pilot hole was finished, the drill press was removed, the pilot drill was replaced by a 1.6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... diameters            + Characteristic number of the            inner diameter + Suffix ( es ) All of these components are manufactured based on given accuracy classes (usually denoted as “P,” for precision) and assembled together to reach a certain radial clearance (usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the parting line of the forging was larger than the grain size in the surrounding area. This indicated that either this area of the forging was not worked as much as the rest of the forging; there was uneven flow, or this area received more heat, all of which can cause the grains to grow larger. Crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... suppliers publish maximum allowable working stress levels to maximize fatigue life; however, like all the other properties previously mentioned, fatigue resistance is also dependent on several parameters, including: Time Temperature Load Frequency Part geometry Time, temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... application, sheet metals become stronger from a phenomenon known as work hardening or strain hardening. Concurrent with this increasing load, the actual cross-sectional area of the tensile dog bone decreases. The strength increase from work hardening is greater than the loss of the load-carrying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to the applied load, W ; L is the length of contact between the shaft and bearing; c is the clearance; and ε = 1 − h / c ( h is the minimum separation). The term on the left of the equation is one form of the Sommerfeld number and is sometimes referred to as the bearing characteristic. It is clear from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the reduction of the sheave-to-rope diameter ratio. Sheave Grooves To allow wire rope to perform the maximum amount of useful work, it is essential that sheave grooves be of sufficient diameter to provide and maintain proper rope clearance. All wire rope, when new, is slightly oversize to allow for some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... To allow wire rope to perform the maximum amount of useful work, it is essential that sheave grooves be of sufficient diameter to provide and maintain proper rope clearance. All wire rope, when new, is slightly oversized to allow for some pulling down or compaction of the helically nested wires and strands...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... behavior, as in the case of solid-solid impact, is governed by strain-rate sensitivity. Due to the small volume, a scale effect can be considered, and the work-hardening effect cannot be interpreted as it can be in a classical abrasion mechanism. In terms of energy dissipation, impact energy can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with no clearance in order to avoid fretting, but an interference fit may cause delamination. This problem has been alleviated to some extent by the development of several special sleeve/ fastener combinations. The extreme temperature changes experienced by aircraft can cause differential thermal expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the holes with no clearance in order to avoid fretting, but an interference fit may cause delamination. This problem has been alleviated to some extent by the development of several special sleeve/fastener combinations. The extreme temperature changes experienced by aircraft can cause differential thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of this information may be needed for every analysis, but it is desirable because the necessary data cannot be established until considerable analytical work has been done. Later acquisition of pertinent data is frequently difficult or impossible. Generally, the data come from the field representative, the bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... suffering a preferential attack. In addition, the existence of regions of differing stress levels, or zones of cold work resulting from the impacts can also result in small anodic areas. Further, variations in the flow rate over the surface result in different rates of oxygen diffusion and could also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... due to the applied load W , L is the length of contact between the shaft and bearing, c is the clearance, and ϵ = 1 − h / c ( h is the minimum separation). The term on the left is one form of the Sommerfeld number and is sometimes referred to as the bearing characteristic. It is clear from Eq...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... overloaded with clothes one or more times leading up to the failure by knowing that the coupling is intended to be a mechanical fuse to protect the transmission from overload damage; determining that the motor and transmission were in good working order prior to the failure; establishing that the wash tub...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In gouging abrasion, the wearing surface is plastically deformed and work hardened by the abrasive forces, so that cutting and tearing of metal occurs on the work-hardened surface. Typical operations that involve gouging abrasion include crushing and primary grinding operations. The wear liners of crushing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by a cutting tool. In gouging abrasion, the wearing surface is plastically deformed and work hardened by the abrasive forces, so that cutting and tearing of metal occurs on the work-hardened surface. Typical operations that involve gouging abrasion include crushing and primary grinding operations. The wear...