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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Work rolls made of indefinite chill double-poured (ICDP) iron are commonly used in the finishing trains of hot-strip mills (HSMs). In actual service, spalling, apart from other surface degeneration modes, constitutes a major mechanism of premature roll failures. Although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A working roll of 210 mm diam and 500 mm face length was examined because of shell-shaped fractures. The roll consisted of Fe-0.83C-1.6Cr steel. The chromium content was low for a roll of this diam. The crack origin was located about 10 mm under the roil face. Surface hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Spalled fragments from the work rolls of a steel bar straightening machine were received for failure analysis. Visual inspection coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy were used as the principal analytical techniques for the investigation. Fractographic analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... component life. A brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A roll assembly consisting of a forged AISI type 440A stainless steel sleeve shrink fitted over a 4340 steel shaft and further secured with tapered keys on opposite ends was crated and shipped by air. Upon arrival, the sleeve was found to have cracked longitudinally between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Overall, the appearance of this discontinuity, with the long axis parallel to the working direction and radial orientation with regard to depth, strongly suggests a seam produced during rolling. Flaws of this nature are not uncommon in rolled bars and generally do not present a serious problem...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... subjected to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... by which it was produced. A stronger decarburization of the case was a contributing factor that could not be prevented by working because the thread was rolled. Hardening tests conducted by the bolt manufacturer showed that quench cracks did not occur in specimens that were turned down before hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Mill Rolls: A Microstructural Insight , Mater. Forum , Vol 16 ( No. 4 ), 1992 , p 317 – 325 3. Roberts G.A. and Cary R.A. , Class 520 Chromium-Molybdenum Hot Work Die Steels , Tool Steels , American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 578 – 593 4. Kortesoja V.A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... rolling-element bearing working temperatures Table 13 Nonexhaustive list of typical rolling-element bearing working temperatures Application type Working temperature °C °F Table boring machine 40 105 Circular saw 40 105 Lathe spindle 50 120 Wood-milling spindle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... during pouring, which produces globs of metal that solidify on the mold walls and ultimately become embedded in the surface of the ingot. These are called scabs, and they usually show up only after rolling or working; as can be expected, they provide a poor surface finish. Imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and industry, but Fig. 2 is a schematic illustration of some terms used to describe flaws in rolled bar stock. This schematic is not a complete summary of possible imperfections; for example, die scratches of cold-worked product are not included. However, the schematic of Fig. 2 shows typical terms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... levels of strain, while they crack from the onset of deformation when loaded in the transverse direction [ 4 ]. Early work on the effects of sulfides in bearing steels found that they are neutral or even advantageous in rolling contact fatigue situations [ 11 , 13 ]. MnS inclusions were originally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were found to be 476 and 222 VPN, respectively. The splice plates were produced by simple hot-rolling processes and there was no scope of work hardening or localized grinding prevailing in their processing. These plates were not bent to give the shape of an angle after the hot-rolling. The plate angles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A felt guide roll fractured in-service on a paper manufacturing machine, damaging the belt as well as multiple dryer rolls, nearby felt guide rolls, and the frame of the machine. The investigation included visual and stereoscopic examination, chemical and microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... because of fillet rolling operations. The tensile service stress must overcome the compressive residual stress before any brake disc tensile loading occurs. On the other hand, the new stamped brake disc exhibited an undesirable tensile residual stress pattern in the fillet because of upsetting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intensively studied worldwide as they offer a solution to finding very high strength materials. They also present high toughness and are produced from standard steel compositions (which reflects in low cost) [ 9 ]. Recent works have shown that the ultrafine-grained structure may be obtained in a hot rolling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... this temperature, uniform deformation increases dramatically. The evidence of cold work in the thread roots of the failed pins indicates that the threads were probably rolled below the reported annealing range for the alloy. In a similar alpha-beta alloy, shear band formation has been shown to be a function...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Campus ( Ref 3 ) has suggested that such a stress distribution arises from hot rolling. During such rolling, the web cools faster than the flange, and the web temperature falls below its recrystallization temperature so that the web may undergo cold working while the flange is being hot worked. The yield...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at 650 °C (1200 °F). The basket was fabricated from cold rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel profile wire. The cold worked wires recrystallized during service and experienced a large loss in creep strength. In-service creep caused the basket to distort. The distorted basket was returned to service...