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work hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to smearing and work hardening during machining, it was recommended that these types of steels be machined only with sharp, short tools mounted in rigid structures. In addition, residual stresses should be eliminated by post-process annealing in a protective atmosphere. Chlorides Worm gears X2CrNiMo...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Forged austenitic steel rings used on rotor shafts in two 100,000 kW generators burst from overstressing in a region of ventilation holes. A variety of causes contributed to the brittle fractures in the ductile austenitic alloy, including stress concentration by holes, work hardened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... confirmed that the component was in the annealed condition and not in the required work-hardened 1/4-hard condition. Bombs (weapons) Retaining bands Equiaxed structure Dimensional measurements 302 UNS S30200 Heat treating related failures Introduction Component: MK#15/Mod 6 Snakeye bomb...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... and many other parts of lifting components are subjected give rise to severe pressure and abrasion of the wearing surfaces, which become work-hardened in consequence. It is well known that a work-hardened surface is liable to initiate a fracture of the brittle type, and the primary object of the periodical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the microstructure suggested work hardening. Based on the results, the cause of the fractured blade was high-amplitude fatigue due to severe stall. After normal engine usage of five months, the blade fractured sending fragments throughout the combustion and turbine sections. References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Measurements The hardness at various points across the weld, was measured and the results are depicted in Fig. 7 . It was ascertained that the head had been formed by cold spinning and the heavy work hardening thereby introduced had not been relieved by subsequent heat treatment. The shell hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... application, sheet metals become stronger from a phenomenon known as work hardening or strain hardening. Concurrent with this increasing load, the actual cross-sectional area of the tensile dog bone decreases. The strength increase from work hardening is greater than the loss of the load-carrying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... associated with the stress and the flaw to the J -integral toughness. Further, the current R6 presents three options for the FAC and three analysis categories for the FAP. Option 1 FAC Option 1 FAC is recommended for materials with a low initial work-hardening rate, or as an initial screening test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... , respectively. Both microstructures consist of austenite grains with carbides at the grain boundaries. Both sections of the tube are in the early stages of sensitization as indicated by the carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and along slip lines in the work-hardened swaged metal. The only significant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... necessary to cause cracking were doubtless of the residual type, inherent in wire of this quality, which is work-hardened by cold-drawing in order to attain the necessary tensile strength. The origin of the chlorides was not so evident it is remotely possible that the rotor may have been inadvertently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that normally occurs in service. The effect of a large number of small impacts is to work-harden the surface of a link, ultimately to a degree when the ductility of the material in this region is insufficient to permit deformation without cracking; a crack is then liable to start under abnormal loading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with an increase in sulfur to only 0.029 wt.%. Sulfides have little or no effect on yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent, and work hardening rate in the longitudinal direction relative to non-resulfurized grades; however, transverse properties measured by the author were approximately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... When the rotor is stopped and the action of the centrifugal force is removed, redistribution of the stress will occur, say to point C situated between O and B. The next cycle would be represented by a curve of the form CDEF, the yield point being higher because of the work hardening that has occurred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress cycling. The hardness of the material forming the surfaces of the impacting bodies has been noted to increase ( Ref 2 , 8 , 12 ). Within the deformation zone, this is credited to work hardening, whereas in the white layer, it is a property of the near-surface material developed in situ ( Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Quality).” The screws were 38 mm (1.5 in.) in length, with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) diameter between thread peaks and a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) diameter between thread roots. They were made of type 316L stainless steel in the work-hardened condition, having a specified hardness range of 30 to 35 HRC, which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that enhances cross slip or twinning, or that increases the rate of work hardening will retard crack nucleation. On the other hand, alloying usually raises the flow stress of a metal, which speeds up crack propagation, thus at least partly offsetting the potentially beneficial effect on fatigue-crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... on the Vicker's hardness scale [ 2 ]. It is apparent that the material near the running surface is work hardened. Work hardening decreases away from the running surface down into the more moderately stressed core material. Superimposed on the hardness measurements is the location of the shell relative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... on the tension side B.1 fractured at a bend angle of only 3°. In order to ascertain if this behaviour derived from the work-hardening associated with the operation of shearing, the longer portion of the strip used for the bend test was cut in two lengthwise. One portion was stress relieved at 650°C. for half...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stainless steels of the 18 to 20% Cr and 8 to 10% Ni class (CF-8). Manifestations of Cavitation Erosion Cavitation erosion typically begins with deformation rumpling and work hardening of metal surfaces, often with delineation of grain and phase boundaries, as shown in Fig. 1(a) , 2(a) , and 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... from excessive work-hardening of the material in the region of the origin of the service fracture. A sulphur print, taken on a cross section of the hook adjacent to the plane of fracture, showed it to have been made from a killed steel free from major segregation ; a slight segregate of elliptical...