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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... exfoliated areas after 4 – 6 years' exposure, but at the regions where the coating had been removed by scratching or machining, corrosion developed within a year. The sprayed coatings afforded protection for the six years during which the tests were carried out and were effective even across 1 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The deformation and damage caused by screwing the outer ferrule on allowed water to penetrate through the protective outer coverings to the wire reinforcing. This area is also the maximum stress region of the hose, and large shear stresses are created between the layers of the hose, resulting in debonding between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A steam jacketed autoclave of orthodox design was fabricated from mild steel for a working pressure of 320 psi. The only unusual feature in its construction was a protective layer of weld metal, which was deposited on the internal surface of the upper half of the 1 in. thick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... subjected to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... sheath. Failure of the lift hose was approximately 50 to 100 mm away from the "upper" end of the hose, with the straight coupling that attaches to the hydraulic system. The return hose was in much better condition, with no apparent deformation and only small areas of mechanical damage to the outer sheath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... flux leakage (MFL) inspection, ultrasonic testing (UT), and evaluation of the external cathodic protection (CP) system were used in the failure analysis. The corrosion products were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The failure is attributed to the ingress of water and its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... defects that were generated during the manufacturing process (wire drawing and wire picking). Previous work has shown that the presence of manufacturing defects dramatically decreases the corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloys, because they remove the protective TiO 2 layer. 32 Additionally, Ni-Ti...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... out of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This requires a design tradeoff between the head-to-shank radius and the head-bearing area to achieve optimum results. Cold working of the head fillet is another common method of preventing fatigue failure because it induces a residual compressive stress and increases the material strength. Finally, fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the fuel and the air can lead to deposition of alkali metal sulfates on the blade or vane surfaces, resulting in hot corrosion attack [ 2 ]. Overview of Gas Turbine Engine Hot Parts The areas of the gas turbine where the temperature is the highest and which are therefore, most subject to high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... aluminum alloy. The slugs examined were unirradiated slugs which had been stored for 5 years at the time of the examination in stainless steel slug buckets. The corrosion on these slugs was visually similar to the irradiated slugs which were stored in the same area of the basin. The unirradiated slugs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the articles “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ” and “ Liquid-Metal- and Solid-Metal-Induced Embrittlement ” in this Volume and to Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of the ASM Handbook , 2003. Stress-corrosion cracking develops when a susceptible metal or alloy is exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...%) of the good bearing compared with 7% lead of the failed bearing helped to establish a protective transfer layer on the worn surface. This transfer layer reduced metal-to-metal contact between the bearing and the roller and resulted in a lower wear rate. The lower lead content of the failed bearing does...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: The welding procedure, which employed few passes and high heat input, undoubtedly generated unacceptably high levels of residual stress in the HAZs. The cold working of the internal surface in a sizing operation also set up residual stresses in areas apart from the welds. Both conditions were conducive to SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Protection in Hydraulic Turbines , Mater. Perform. , Vol 21 ( No. 8 ), 1982 , p 15 – 18 23. Scholl M. and Clayton P. , Abrasive and Erosive Wear of Some Hypervelocity Air Plasma Sprayed Coatings , Thermal Spray Coatings: Properties, Processes, and Applications, Proc. Fourth Nat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It discusses the degradation of various protective systems, such as corrosion inhibitors and lubricants. The article describes the failure analysis of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, and their alloys. It also discusses the probes available to monitor conditions relevant to MIC in industrial systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Li W. and Li D.Y. , Variations of Work Function and Corrosion Behaviour of Deformed Copper Surfaces , Appl. Surf. Sci. , Vol 240 , 2005 , p 388 – 395 10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.07.017 22. Bradford S.A. , Corrosion Control , 2nd ed. , CASTI Publishing , Edmonton , 2001...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... no protection against the corrosive environment. The corrosion varies from a light rust to a thick, flaky, rust-colored scale. Rust is found in areas where little surface pitting has taken place. Pitting beneath the corrosion scale is much more severe. Examples of scale and associated pitting appear in Figs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fretting also occurs in nonoxidizing materials, such as gold, platinum, and cupric oxide. The debris formed by many nonferrous metals is largely unoxidized and is larger in particle size than ferrous materials are. If fretting occurs in an inert or protective atmosphere, little debris is produced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to form long cracks. Severe localized corrosion is also known ( 8 ) to occur in areas of high chemical inhomogeneity, such as the interdendritic regions, under conditions that favor spalling of the protective scale ( 9 ), such as thermal gradients, external stresses or the formation of physical...