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wet chemical etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... and in a stressed condition. An experiment was conducted using a 1.27-cm ( 1 2 -inch) round rotating medium carbon steel, loaded as a cantilever beam. The beam ran for many hours without failure at 925 °C and 1750 RPM. The steel was then wetted with molten brass and catastrophic failure occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failure, whereas the opposite side exhibited a planar-type fracture. Sections were removed from the eroded area and from the opposite lip for microscopic studies and chemical analysis. The eroded edges exhibited river bed ditching, indicative of thermal fatigue. Microstructural analysis showed massive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Drillings were taken for wet chemical analysis. Microstructural Analysis Figures 4 and 5 are micrographs taken on a transverse section of the pipe that show the fracture surface in cross section. The inside surface of the pipe is shown in Fig. 4 (with the fracture along the top). Oxide scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Some 99.90 pure tin tubes (0.15 mm thick) used for packaging a chemical compound cracked on bending and underwent brittle fracture prior to filling, while others remained ductile and showed no sign of failure. Examination showed that specimens prepared by mechanical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A group of control valves that regulate production in a field of sour gas wellheads performed satisfactorily for three years before pits and cracks were detected during an inspection. One of the valves was examined using chemical and microstructural analysis to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... °F) ran for hours without failure at 1750 rpm. However, the instant they were wetted with molten brass, catastrophic failure occurred. These samples were loaded above the yield point of the steel at 925 °C (1700 °F). Samples were also treated in the same manner, but the load was removed before...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... steels is normally associated with aqueous chloride environments. Fig. 4 SEM photomicrograph showing stress corrosion cracking facets, step-like features analogous to cleavage facets, on the tank fracture surface. (1500×) EDS elemental chemical analysis ( Fig. 5 ) of the uncleaned fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metallurgical approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking Background...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Transgranular SCC in type 316 stainless steel. Note typical austenitic matrix with midgrain carbides. Oxalic etch. 128×. Corrosion or Wear Deposits Chemical analysis in the form of energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) was performed on several deposits near the pitted areas to determine elemental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the aluminum equipment that was in operation prior to the installation of the mercury-removal bed. Butt welds Chemical processing equipment Ethylene Hydrocarbons Mercury Repair welding 5083-O UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... as the operating transgranular fracture failure mechanism. Water containing H7S was subsequently identified as the aggressive environment that precipitated the fractures in the presence of high tensile stress. This environment was generated by the chemical breakdown of the engine oil additive and moisture ingress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in Fig. 1 , was visually examined. Multiple cracks were observed over much of the surface of the damaged disc. Fig. 1 The rotor disc segment is shown as received for analysis Nondestructive Evaluation Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on residues clinging to a pitted stainless steel surface to confirm the presence of chloride ions—a common cause of pitting. Wet chemical methods are often supplemented by the use of x-ray diffraction or electron probe x-ray microanalysis, using wavelength- or energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was observed. Many of the cracks were filled with iron oxide ( Fig. 7 ). These observations are characteristic of caustic-induced SCC. Fig. 5 Intergranular cracks propagating along prior-austenite grain boundaries (etch: picric acid + wetting agent). 630× Fig. 6 Higher-magnification view...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... ring exhibited little or no damage. Wet chemical analysis of the material in the inner and outer rings showed it to be 4140 steel. Molybdenum contents were 0.26% in the inner ring and 0.31% in the outer ring, both slightly above the specified range of 0.15 to 0.25%. However, this deviation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.../Intermetallics Bulk chemical analysis of ceramic and intermetallic components that have failed may be made in several ways, including wet analytical chemistry, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, x-ray diffraction analysis is particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , and Kraemer M. , A Comparison of Different Physical-Chemical Methods of Etching for Silicon Nitride Ceramics , Pract. Metallogr. , Vol 27 , 1990 , p 385 – 390 13. Quantitative Metallography , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , American Society for Metals , 1985...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... factory in which the bearing failure took place was visited to collect samples and relevant information. The collected samples were characterized by conventional wet chemical analysis, metallography, and microhardness measurements by standard methods. Both failed and good bearing samples were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... sections had been examined, with the etching process dissolving the cadmium, and (iii) other screws did not fail during the post-crash fire because there were very thin oxide films between the electroplated cadmium and the underlying steel that precluded wetting. Tests on new cadmium-plated screws did...