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welding defects

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... parameters resulted in acceptable welds. Bombs (weapons) Bomb fins Welded joints Weld defects Low-carbon steel Joining-related failures Reference 1. Anon .: in Welding Handbook , 8th ed. , vol. 1 , Welding Technology, Connor L.P. , ed., American Welding Society , Miami...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... to heat-affected zone cracking, residual stresses, the lower fatigue strength of the weld deposited metal, and weld defects. Repair welding Shafts (power) Weld defects Fe-0.6C Joining-related failures Fatigue fracture It is true to say that the construction of engineering plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... root (lack of penetration). Component failure had started from this weld defect. The hydrogen absorbed during welding facilitated crack initiation from this weld defect during storage of the component after welding. Poor weld toughness at the low operating temperature facilitated crack growth during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... in the weld zone (up to 1.2 mm deep) were revealed during metallographic examination of a section through the fracture surface. The cracks were filled with scale which indicated that they had formed during resistance welding of the link. The defect was thus attributed to the weld defects which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... with 2% chromic acid plus HCl views) supported the conclusions that failure was by fatigue from multiple origins caused by welding defects. Ultimate failure was by tensile overload of the sections partly separated by the fatigue cracks. Recommendations included correct fit-up of the case, stiffener...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... during case hardening. The butt weld seams were not tight and were covered with oxide inclusions. Given that wear occurred preferentially at the welds it may be concluded that this weld defect contributed to the substantial wear. This leaves unanswered whether these chains could have withstood the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-current motor. The mode of failure and the changes in the microstructure showed that fracture was due to a defective resistance butt-weld which had been made when the wire was in process of drawing. A further example of a conductor failure occurred in a 12 SWG copper connection between the rotor contactor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the preheating was not high enough or sufficiently uniform. This damage was therefore caused by a welding defect. Cracking (fracturing) Pipe Preheating Weld defects Welded joints Structural steel Joining-related failures In a shipyard one of the two posts of a loading gear fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., again a brittle crack was initiated at a horizontal weld defect and propagated vertically, destroying the tank and the liquefaction plant. The initiation site was a thumbnail elliptical crack in a horizontal weld, having a depth of 1.5 mm, and a length of 4.5 mm. This showed that as late the mid-1970s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fissures which originated at a zone containing defects introduced at the time of manufacture. These may have had their origin in the ingot from which the plate was rolled or, alternatively, be indicative of a zone which suffered overheating and local burning at the time the forge weld was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... vertical axis of the original ingot. The crankshaft had not been stress-relieved after a welding operation had been carried out. The only satisfactory course to follow when dealing with a highly stressed part in which defects of the type in question are revealed during machining is to scrap the forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... killed ingots. Aqueducts Ductile brittle transition Fillet welds Joint design Piping Preheating Stress concentration Welding defects ASTM A572 grade 42 Type 2 Brittle fracture Joining-related failures A 208 cm (82 in.) ID steel aqueduct fractured circumferentially at two points 152 m...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., which contained 16 welds, was carefully scanned. Five additional defects were discovered, all circumferential and all in HAZs adjacent to welds. In contrast, scans of larger-diameter pipes in the system (up to 560 mm, or 22 in., in diameter) disclosed no such defects. Samples of the 150 mm (6 in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Parts of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel that had been forged at about 815 deg C (1500 deg F) were gas tungsten arc welded. During postweld inspection, cracks were found in the HAZs of the welds. Welding had been done using a copper fixture that contacted the steel in the area of the HAZ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract While undergoing vibration testing, a type 347 stainless steel inlet header for a fuel-to-air heat exchanger cracked in the header tube adjacent to the weld bead between the tube and header duct. Investigation (visual inspection and liquid penetrant inspection) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An air bottle, machined from a solid block of aluminum alloy 2219-T852, displayed liquid-penetrant crack indications after assembly welding. The air bottle was machined to rough shape, a 3.8 mm (0.15 in.) wall thickness cylindrical cup with a 19 mm (3/4 in.) wall thickness integral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A number of seamless pipe nipples of 70 mm diam and 3.5 mm wall thickness made of steel type 35.8 were oxyacetylene welded to collectors of greater wall thickness with a round bead. X-ray examination showed crack initiation in the interior of the nipples close to the root of the weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., about 2 in. long, developed at the approximate mid-length of the vessel, and allowed slow de-pressurization. Subsequent examination by radiography and ultrasonic means indicated the crack was associated with an irregularly shaped, laminar type of defect located within the wall of the vessel. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... during examination of a naphtha desulfurizer by ultrasonic shear wave techniques. Defect indications were found in longitudinal and circumferential seam welds of the ASTM A204, grade A, steel sheet. The vessel was found to have a type 405 stainless steel liner for corrosion protection that was spot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... taken place either at a weld in the pipe or at a discontinuity in the material. Microscopic examination through the joints at the ends of the rupture confirmed that the pipe had been made from strip and the edges lap-welded. The second case concerned an 8 in. diam pipe in which a longitudinal defect was...