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weld-overlay coatings

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and Cobalt Alloy Weld Overlay Materials , Coatings and Bimetallics for Aggressive Environments , Sisson R.D. Jr. Ed., American Society for Metals , 1985 , p 125 – 142 19. Zimmerly C.A. , Inal O.T. , and Richman R.H. , Explosive Welding of a Near-Equiatomic Nickel-Titanium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and (d) 721ES Fig. 3 Cross-sectional micrographs of inner root area, (a) welded and (b) spalled region showing exfoliation of top coat and surface crack. Higher-magnification images of substrate of (c) welded and (d) normal region, (e) bond coat of welded and spalled region showing β depletion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... SEM micrograph of boxed area in Fig. 3 .36×. Fig. 5 Low-magnification SEM micrograph of sample B after deoxidation; circles represent areas of EDS scans. 6.2×. Fig. 7 Hard martensitic (acicular) transition at weld fusion line in sample B. 324×. Fig. 6 Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract A major cause of failure in components subjected to rolling or rolling/sliding contacts is contact fatigue. This article focuses on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performance and failure modes of overlay coatings such as those deposited by physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is involved. As an example of improper material specification or use, galvanized steel clips were welded to austenitic stainless steel piping. The galvanized (zinc) coating became molten during the welding process, and the liquid zinc attacked the grain boundaries under shrinkage stresses in the stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gross nonmetallic inclusions, brittle second-phase particles, weld defects, or arc strikes. Occasionally, brittle fractures are encountered, particularly in low-temperature environments or as a result of impact or a rapidly applied overload. Brittle fracture may thus be attributable to inappropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Sigma phase sometimes is found in austenitic stainless steel weld metal as well as in gas turbine nickel-base superalloys. Although sigma phase can occur in the as-welded condition in stainless steels, it is more commonly encountered after long exposures at temperatures of 595 to 870 °C (1100 to 1600 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., weld defects, or arc strikes. Occasionally, brittle fractures are encountered, particularly in low-temperature environments or as a result of impact or a rapidly applied overload. Brittle fracture may thus be attributable to inappropriate choice of material because of incomplete knowledge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metals may be the only practical solution to a problem of liquid erosion. Many of the erosion-resistant metals can be applied as welded overlays; this makes salvage or repair of damaged surfaces easier or surface treatment of new components less costly than would be possible if the component had...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Therefore, complete control of composition is of the utmost importance when welding is involved. As an example of improper material specification or use, galvanized steel clips were welded to stainless steel piping. The galvanized (zinc) coating became molten during the welding process, and the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to reduce the hydrodynamic intensity significantly without seriously degrading performance. In such instances, the use of erosion-resistant metals could be the only practical solution to a problem of liquid erosion. Many of the erosion-resistant metals can be applied as welded overlays; this makes salvage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 980 1795 3 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 3 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 3 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric-resistance-welded tube The effects of oxygen concentration and temperature are specific to each alloy. Scale growth rate increases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of background data on the manufacturing and fabricating history of a component should begin with obtaining specifications and drawings and should encompass all the design aspects of the failed part as well as all manufacturing and fabrication details—machining, welding, heat treating, coating, quality-control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a connection. A connection is a combination of structural elements and joints used to transmit forces between two or more members ( Ref 3 ). While welding is used to overlay material and to repair cracks, most manufacturing and construction operations use welding to make connections that are used to transmit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... covering, flux, shielding gas, and ambient environment; decomposition products of cellulosic-type electrode coatings and combustion products of oxyfuel gas welding; and contaminants containing hydrocarbons (grease, oil, cutting fluid, etc.) on the surface of the filler metal and base plate prior to welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ever causing failure. Figure 2 shows a poorly made weld with incomplete fusion amounting to more than half the tube wall thickness, yet this weld gave more than 27 years of service without failure. Nevertheless, fabrication and repair procedures should be aimed at producing defect-free systems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for aerodynamic conditions World War II Liberty ships ( Ref 8 ) 1942–1952 1289 of the 4694 warships suffered brittle fracture or structure failure at the welded steel joints. Selection of increased toughness material Improved fabrication practices Development of fracture mechanics Liquefied natural gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Liberty ships ( Ref 8 ) 1942–1952 Of the 4694 warships, 1289 suffered brittle fracture or structure failure at the welded steel joints. Selection of increased-toughness material Improved fabrication practices Development of fracture mechanics Liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank ( Ref 9 ) 1944...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but not welded, by working the metal. Seams seldom penetrate to the core of bar stock. Seams may cause additional cracking in hot forging and quench cracking during heat treatment. Oxides in a seam can be the result of exposure to elevated temperatures during processing. Seams are sometimes difficult to detect...