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weld microstructure

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... through the longitudinal displacement of the inner (concentric) pipe. Fractography, microstructural, microhardness, and chemical analyses revealed that the concentric pipe failed due to fatigue. Fatigue cracks initiated along longitudinal welds where wire spacers attach to the external surface of the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... crack. Arrows indicate patches of a hard-appearing microstructure. Nital etch. 500×. Cross sections of the weld were removed from three random locations in sample 2. At each location, the upturned fibers of the weld zone contained bands of hard-appearing microstructure. Two of the cross sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... pipe had become coarse-grained and acicular, and the microstructure of the welding seam had become predominantly martensitic as a result of the mixing of the weld metal with the fused pipe material. The chrome steel pipe had become partially transformed to martensite or bainite at the transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the weld in the coarsegrain portion of the HAZ. The microstructure was found to be severely embrittled and severely gassed in an area around the crack. The microstructure of the metal in the head was revealed to be banded and contained spheroidal carbides. The lower head was established by hardness values...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to a combination of high residual stresses, a mixed microstructure, inclusions, and gross grain coarsening. These synergistic factors resulted from extreme heat input during fillet welding. Recommendations included altering the welding variables such as current, voltage, and travel speed to substantially reduce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the cracking was confined to the heat affected zone (HAZ) surrounding circumferential welds and, to a lesser extent, radial welds that were part of the original construction. Most of the cracks initiated and propagated from the inside surface of the dished ends. Microstructures of the base metal, HAZ, and weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... plate, failure being initiated at the weld fillets of the inner end of the vanes. An unusual feature was that the blades disclosed regions having a pronounced striated and stepped appearance. The etched microstructure was typical of a low carbon rolled plate having the usual banded appearance. A cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that were within the HAZ of the adjacent weld deposit. The heat of welding had generated a coarse-grain structure with a weak grain-boundary network of ferrite that had not been corrected by postweld heat treatment. The combination of the cracks and this unfavorable microstructure provided a weakened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... and the butt welds. Metallographic specimens were prepared from the welds to examine the microstructure and nature of the cracks. The cooking liquor at the inlet cone contained over ppm chlorides and was aggressive to 304 stainless steel. The cracking was identified as chloride-induced SCC. The inlet cone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... revealed a series of hidden repair welds on the inside surface of the plate in the vicinity of the fracture. Comparison of the microstructure in the area of the fracture with that in an area away from the weld indicated that the repair welding had resulted in the creation of an annealed, softened zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... joining the tube sheet to the floating skirt. Cracks penetrated deep into the tube sheet, and occasionally into the tube walls. The microstructures of both alloys and of the weld appeared normal. Intergranular corrosion characteristic of end-grain attack was apparent. A low dead spot at the skirt / tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Microstructural analysis focused on an area where an antisway device had been welded to the structure and revealed the presence of coarse, untempered martensite that had resulted from faulty weld repair techniques. It was suggested that the use of proper welding procedures, including preheating and postheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and not in the heat-affected zone of the forged steel shaft. Microscopic investigation and chemical analysis of the steel shaft revealed presence of martensite (offered a path of easy crack propagation) around the fusion line and dilution of the weld metal by the carbon steel shaft. The microstructure was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... notch produced by flame cutting and welding. As corrective measures, fully silicon-killed 1020 steel with a maximum grain size of ASTM 5 were used to make new stop-block weldments. The weldments were normalized at 900 deg C after flame cutting and welding to improve microstructure and impact strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a microstructure typical of a medium-carbon steel (carbon approximately 0.4%) in the normalized condition, a material not weldable by ordinary methods. It was concluded that the post-welding crack arose primarily from the thermal contraction which developed in the weld metal on cooling. It is probable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for determining the causes of crack initiation at the welded joint. Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization As described before, the investigation of the root cause of the structural collapse suggests that the rupture of one of the connections of the RHS member was responsible for the load...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the grooved surface in the upper section. Fig. 3 The jagged weld band and erosion caused by an eddy Approximately 0.82×. Metallography Microstructural Analysis Six ring sections were removed from the feedwater piping; the areas from which they were removed are shown in Fig. 1 . All six...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Radial cracking occurred adjacent to 11 vanes in a 19-vane impeller operating in a chemical plant environment. The impeller vanes were fillet welded to both the disk and the cover Cracks were next to the fillet welds and near the cover outer diameter They generally did...