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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment chemical...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 12 Water-treatment system characterized at locations 1 to 5 using molecular microbiological method. Sample descriptions and the principal member of the microbial community in each case are: (1) source water, Acidovorax ; (2) biofilm at well head—microbial community shown in Fig. 13 ; (3 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 12 Structure after heat treatment ( 1 2 hr. at 1050° C/water). Etching treatment: V2A-etching solution. 200 × More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Corrosion in potable and nonpotable water systems has been well documented in the past, and new research discusses innovations in water treatment and materials that are designed to enhance the quality of a water system, whether commercial or residential. This paper is a collection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... installation. Recommendations included providing water treatment to remove chlorides from the system. Continuous flow should be maintained throughout the entire tubing system to prevent concentration of chlorides. No chloride-containing water should be permitted to remain in the system during shutdown periods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The repeated failure of a welded ASTM A283 grade D pipe that was part of a 6 km (4 mi) line drawing and conducting river water to a water treatment plant was investigated. Failure analysis was conducted on sections of pipe from the third failure. Visual, macrofractographic, SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the potential for water carryover or feedwater induction into the turbine be addressed via an engineering evaluation of the plant's water treatment procedures, steam separation equipment, and start-up procedures. Chlorides Feedwater Turbine blades Water chemistry ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion monitoring and poor water quality. Pipe replacement and a regular water testing program were recommended. Monitoring Water pipelines Water treatment Steel pipe Uniform corrosion Crevice corrosion Biological corrosion A shopping mall in South Carolina was originally constructed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... been used in similar cases in the past, could assist in eliminating pitting problems. Recommendation was made to the property owners to contact Hillsborough County Environmental Laboratory to discuss water treatment or other suitable alternatives. Conclusions Experience in the investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system. Water chemistry Water heaters Water pipelines Water treatment ASTM A106 UNS K03006 Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and steel piping systems indicated that there are several issues that should be anticipated and addressed in the design, installation, and use of such systems. Engineers and Architects should pay special attention to local water systems and treatment procedures, prior to specifying and selecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... treatment program, it was decided to inject a chelate to control scale formation in the boiler tubes. Unfortunately, the chelate was added ahead of the preheater, where the boiler water still contained oxygen (O 2 ). As the chelate removed iron oxide, the O 2 formed more iron oxide, and this uniform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... environment or a lack of proper water treatment can lead to catastrophic failures. The key in avoiding MIC-related problems is to consider bacterial problems at the start of the construction design phase. If a process condition is to be changed, its potential impact on bacteria growth should be considered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the pipe was buried in noncorrosive sandy soil, it was found to incur stray currents at 2 Vdc in relation to a Cu/CuSO4 half cell. Recommendations included eliminating, moving, or shielding the source of stray current. Pipe couplings Stray current corrosion Water treatment systems Copper pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and is designed to operate at a pressure of 10.3 MPa (1500 psi) with a final steam Temperate of 513 °C (955 °F). A coordinated pH-phosphate system is used for water treatment. Well water is the source for the make-up water. Reportedly, all water treatment control limits, including the demineralizer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of 9.0 and 200 ppm of sodium sulfite should be added to the water. pH Purging Water chemistry Water treatment ASME SA276 Pitting corrosion A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... manufacturer and by the water treatment consultant. The boiler manufacturer felt the leakage was due to feedwater chemistry problems and the water treatment consultant felt that there was no chemistry problem. Fig. 1 The feedwater piping received for analysis. The lettered lines indicate areas from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... soft, with pH around 7 and chlorides around 15 ppm. The cooling water treatment included continuous chlorination at the rate of 4 to 5 kg (9 to 11 lb) of chlorine per hour as a microbiological treatment. This increased the chloride level. On hot surfaces of the tubes, where the tube-side temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conditioning and treatment of the boiler water has been such to obviate risk of attack by dissolved oxygen. Discussion It is generally accepted that the continuous formation of magnetite depends upon the diffusion of ions through its atomic lattice, a process which becomes slower as the thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a phosphate water treatment, except for the presence of copper and nickel, which are the result of the corrosion of copper-nickel water circuit tubing. Discussion Metallurgical evidence indicated that the bulge and crack in the tube resulted from irreversible hydrogen damage. Hydrogen damage may occur...