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water flow velocity

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be determined using the equation m /3600 = ρ.ν. A , where m is the mass flow rate in pounds of fluid per hour, ρ is the density of water at a specific temperature in lb/ft 3 , and A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe in The flow velocity in the 10-cm (4-in.) diam pipe, with a mass flow rate of 87090...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by the corrosive, high velocity gas flow. The corrosion rate of either the inhibited or uninhibited gas stream was too high for equipment in high pressure gas service. Type 410 (12% Cr) stainless steel was recommended for the choke bodies because other equipment such as valves made of type 410 showed no evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the separators had deteriorated because of erosion corrosion. Further analysis of the boiler operation revealed that operational changes made in the last year of service caused an increase in velocity of the water/steam mixture. It was recommended that the operating parameters for the boiler be reevaluated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by turbulent river water flowing through copper pipe. The typical horseshoe-shaped pits point upstream. 0.5× In piping systems, erosion-corrosion can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the pipe, thus decreasing velocity and turbulence. The streamlining of bends is useful in minimizing the effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heating and cooling cycles per hour for at least 16 h/day, or a minimum of 224 cycles/day. Steam and water pressure were 1035 kPa (150 psi) and 895 kPa (130 psi) respectively, and water-flow rate was estimated to be 1325 L/min (350 gal/min) based on pump capacity. Water-inlet temperature was 10 to 15 deg...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the computational time. The droplet trajectory can be evaluated from the numerical velocity data, neglecting the gas-liquid interaction in the two-phase flow ( Ref 49 – 51 ). It should be mentioned that a similar approach was applied to the prediction of leading-edge erosion of wind turbine blades using numerical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with chlorides are aggressive pitters, with cupric and ferric ions being extremely aggressive [ 2 ]. Pitting is usually associated with stagnant conditions, and increasing flow velocity often decreases pitting. Severe cold working increases pitting, and surface finish often has a marked effect on pitting...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by the black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the velocity, streamlining the fluid flow, and decreasing the amount of entrained air or solid particles. These can be achieved by a streamlined design of water boxes, injector nozzles, and piping. Abrupt angular changes in the direction of fluid flow, low-pressure pockets, obstruction to smooth flow, and any...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Fig. 4 for type A514 steel in a water/silica sand slurry containing 50 × 70 mesh particles. Fig. 4 Comparison of slurry wear for the flow-through and recycled slurry systems using a low-alloy steel in a 2% silica sand slurry. Source: Ref 13 Figure 5 shows the worn surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 27 , 28 ). Most cavitation erosion damage takes place on the suction surface of the impeller because of suction instabilities. With decreasing flow rate, the fluid approaches the impeller blades with larger and larger angles of incidence. This leads to great variations of pressure and velocity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and open rotor (impeller). Both the case and the ductile iron rotor core were covered by natural rubber. Analyses conducted included surface examination of wear patterns, chemical analysis of materials, measurement of mechanical properties, and in-place flow tests. It was determined that the proximate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of components by the hot stamping process. Microscopic examination indicated failure from dezincification. The fact that the screwed end was not affected indicated that the trouble was not caused by the condensate, which flowed through the elbow, but originated from the water heated in the vessel. The helical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in.) apart and approximately 50 mm (2 in.) from the weld. The flow velocity of the header was 3.5 m/s (12 ft/s) and that of the pipe was 5 m/s (17 ft/s). Localized areas measured on the elbow had been thinned to as little as 1.17 mm (0.046 in.). Pertinent Specifications The pipe material was ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The first leak was detected after less than 1 year of operation. A total of 59 tubes had failed in 6 years. Pertinent Specifications Seawater flows inside the aluminum brass condenser tubes with a velocity of about 1.5 m/s (5 ft/s). Traveling water screens of 10 × 10 mm (0.4 × 0.4 in.) mesh are used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-through type, wherein the water and steam flow through the boiler circuitry only once. Figure 1 explains the basic difference between the functioning of a subcritical and a supercritical boiler. Fig. 1 Schematic showing difference in functioning of subcritical and supercritical boilers...