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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract An arsenical admiralty brass (UNS C44300) finned tube in a generator air cooler unit at a hydroelectric power station failed. The unit had been in operation for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes was water from a river. Air flowed over the finned exterior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... with nuts and washers at each end. This assembly became loose, thereby allowing air under pressure to enter the waterside of the cooler and expel the water, leading to overheating and ultimately to the damage described. Air compressors Combustion Heat exchanger tubes Overheating Brass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The generator air cooler tube was one of eight cooler units at a hydroelectric power station. The unit had operated for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes is water from a river. Air flows over the finned exterior of the tubes, while water circulates through the tubes. Circumstances...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... steel. The tubes were 19.05 mm (0.75 in.) OD with a 3.0 mm (0.12 in.) wall thickness. After about 6 months of operation, a high ammonia content was noticed in the cooling water. By the process of elimination, the cooler was identified as the source of the leak. Upon opening the bundle, cracks were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A cooler of an ammonia synthesis plant was destroyed after three years of service due to the rupture of a distribution manifold. Synthesis gas under high pressure and at about 300 deg C, consisting of 10% NH3 and unconverted gas of 25% N2 and 75% H2 content, was water-cooled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the 70 mg/l measured for the combination of city and spring-pit water. These results suggest that a change to city water may reduce the amount of corrosion caused by chlorides. The authors concluded that the oil cooler tubes conform to ASTM B111-Alloy C44300, and have a grain size of about 30 µm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Copper alloy C70600 tube from a hydraulic-oil cooler. The cooler failed from crevice corrosion caused by dirt particles in river water that was used as a coolant. (a) Inner surface of hydraulic-oil cooler tube containing a hole (arrow A) and nodules (one of which is indicated by arrow B) formed from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tubes Leakage Copper Pitting corrosion Background Copper tubes from the cooler assemblies of a large air-conditioning unit exhibited leakage upon installation of the unit. Specimen Selection Two 46 cm (18 in.) long tubes from newly installed chilled water coils were sent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... water; however, treated recirculating water was sometimes used. Sections of 12 cooler tubes were sent to the laboratory for a determination of the cause and mechanism of failure. Investigation Recommendations Selected Reference Selected Reference • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... approximately 82,000 hrs and had been taken out of service for repairs to water wall tubes. It was during the pressure test some four months later prior to returning the boiler to service that severe leakage suddenly occurred at a pressure of 760 psi. This was traced to a crack which developed on the side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... of the stresses in the tube fin area indicated that failure was most probably due to thermal stress from differential expansion of the fin and tube. Specifically, the outside of the fin approaches the temperature of the flue gas, while the tube is nearer to the temperature of the cooler inlet water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rivet holes and other areas of high stress when boiler water contained caustic soda (NaOH) or the boiler water chemistry was conducive to the formation of caustic soda ( Ref 4 ). In their 1926 paper, “The Cause and Prevention of Embrittlement of Boiler Plate,” researchers at the University of Illinois...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is an additional example. Example 1: SCC of a Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipe Caused by Residual Welding Stresses A 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe (11 mm, or 0.432 in., wall thickness), which had served as an equalizer line in the primary loop of a pressurized-water reactor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cooling, heat exchangers, nitrogen coolers, biological shield heat exchangers, diesel generators, air compressors, chiller condensers, and thermofluid heat exchangers. The heat is finally released to the atmosphere in an induced-draft cooling tower. The three service water pumps in this particular reactor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... or promote further localized oxidation or corrosion which can then become self perpetuating. Water Wall/Lower Furnace Upper Furnace/Buckstays Superheater Economizer The foresight required to locate areas where potential fatigue problems are likely depends on good engineering, experience...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fluxes can operate for at least 12,000 h ( Ref 1 ). Specimen Selection The failed heat pipe was thoroughly rinsed in alcohol and then in tap water to remove all traces of sodium. Specimens for macro- and microexamination were taken at the four locations indicated in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Canadian units belonged to a set of four generators driven by steam turbines, the oldest of which was put into service late in 1951; they were used for peak loads on the main Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario's network, largely supplied by water power. Results of an exhaustive inquiry...