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water atomization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and crack in the tube resulted from hydrogen damage. Examination of the remaining water circuit boiler tubing using nondestructive techniques and elimination of any heavy deposit buildup was recommended. Cracking (fracturing) Carbon steel Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background The rear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., a detergent, and rinse water, were also provided for comparison purposes. No differences were noted between the nondiscolored and discolored components in terms of chemical composition, microstructure, or surface profile. Scanning electron microscopic study of the nondiscolored and discolored components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... water-wall tube failures. Of the four boilers in the plant, this unit had had 4 to 5 times as many tube failures. Selection of Specimens Four waterwall tube samples were received for analysis. The tube samples, labeled 1,2,3, and 4, were reportedly removed from a slanted section above the burners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... water as a reaction product along with the polymer. Under certain circumstances of exposure to aqueous environments, the polymerization reaction can essentially be reversed, and the polymer broken down. Normally, these hydrolytic degradation reactions occur at extremely slow rates, and certainly nylon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... for a variety of experiments in nuclear physics, solid state physics, and neutron science. At LANSCE, for example, a high-power beam of 800 MeV protons at a current level of 1 mA (800 kW) can be transported in vacuum through the experimental area to a beam stop. Because the beam stop must be heavily water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... classification of scrap pieces for sorting Elemental analysis of geological materials ( Ref 1 ) In OES analysis, the specimen composition is determined from light emitted from atoms excited to a higher energy state. Free atoms, when placed in an energetic environment, emit light at a series of narrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that can affect organic materials such as polymers are solar radiation, heat, and water in the form of relative humidity or as liquid. These so-called primary weathering factors lead to the degradation of polymers, especially in the presence of oxygen. Secondary factors, such as atmospheric pollutants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in many metals and is readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water contamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the operating principles, advantages, and limitations of scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy that are used to analyze the surface chemistry of plastics. atomic force...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Nickel anodes failed in several electrolysis cells in a heavy-water upgrading plant. Dismantling of a cell revealed gouging and the presence of loosely attached black porous masses on the anode. The carbon steel top, plate was severely corroded. An appreciable quantity of black powder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... analysis of crystalline compounds in the deposit indicated the possible presence of ammonia. Failure was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking resulting from ammonia in the cooling water. It was recommended that an alternate tube material, such as a 70Cu-30Ni alloy or a titanium alloy, be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 2 – 7 Composition Submolecular Structure Most engineering plastics are based on organic (carbon-base) polymers. Table 2 lists common atoms found in plastics and gives both the electronegativity (relative tendency to attract electrons) of the atom and the number of bonds typically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to a significant extent by concentrated sulphuric acid, but if dilution occurs, then corrosion does take place. Pre-supposing that dilution had occurred some time during the service life of the tank—and this could easily be brought about by the condensation of water vapour on a surface wetted with concentrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar and epoxy-coated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conditioning and treatment of the boiler water has been such to obviate risk of attack by dissolved oxygen. Discussion It is generally accepted that the continuous formation of magnetite depends upon the diffusion of ions through its atomic lattice, a process which becomes slower as the thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Various aluminum bronze valves and fittings on the essential cooling water system at a nuclear plant were found to be leaking. The leakage was limited to small-bore socket-welded components. Four specimens were examined: three castings (an ASME SB-148 CA 952 elbow from a small-bore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and hardness (50 to 60 HRC). This produced a very brittle, undesirable material that would fracture under only minor loading conditions. The presence of thermal fatigue indications was evidence that improper atomization of the water spray had occurred. This resulted in alternate wetting and heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-atomic emission spectroscopy corrosion resistance SA 210A1 (medium carbon steel) Background of Failure During the course of addressing a problem in a gas air heater, the boiler unit in question was shut down to cool. During cooling, heavy water leak was noticed at the bottom of the furnace...