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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Original carbon steel and subsequent replacement austenitic stainless steel superheater tube U-bend failures occurred in a waste heat boiler. The carbon steel tubes had experienced metal wastage in the form of caustic corrosion gouging, while the stainless steel tubes failed by caustic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The carbon steel feedwater piping at a waste-to-energy plant was suffering from wall thinning and leaking after being in service for approximately six years. Metallographic examination of ring sections removed front the piping revealed a normal microstructure consisting of pearlite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... composition, time, and gas composition. High-temperature corrosive environments may include power-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... environment or a lack of proper water treatment can lead to catastrophic failures. The key in avoiding MIC-related problems is to consider bacterial problems at the start of the construction design phase. If a process condition is to be changed, its potential impact on bacteria growth should be considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., hotels, restaurants, and office buildings use boilers for generation of steam and/or hot water. Likewise, there are boilers termed as heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and kraft-recovery boilers. As the HRSG name indicates, the waste heat released by the exhaust gases or hot air from combustion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It is essential to understand material structures, the influence of heat treatment on the structures, and the indicators of the manufacturing methods used to make the component, together with the indicators of the different damage modes. With this knowledge, the possibilities can be narrowed down to probabilities...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; the presence of an environment containing ammonia, specifically ammonia from livestock waste, where the munitions were stored; and residual tensile stresses from the manufacturing process, specifically crimping of the casing. Caustic Embrittlement At roughly the same time that season cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., including wrong material; improper operation, including improper maintenance and inadequate water treatment; routine normal operations, such as too frequent soot blowing; and miscellaneous causes. Of these general types of causes, improper operation, which includes most incidents of overheating, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the attention of the investigator, because they reduce production efficiency, waste critical materials, and increase costs. In some instances, they cause considerable damage or personal injury. Finally, failures can result in costly litigations. The need to develop and encourage the science (and art...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As of 1972, the characteristics of SCC were known to include ( Ref 9 ): Tensile stress is required. This stress may be supplied by service loads, cold work, mismatch in fitup, heat treatment, and the wedging action of corrosion products. Only alloys are susceptible (no pure metals), although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... many forced power outages, considerably affecting the generation capacity of power plants and reducing plant productivity. The blasts are caused primarily by corrosion, stress ruptures, inadequate heat treatment, and welding defects [ 1 – 3 ]. Tube corrosion can be classified into two major types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste-incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine (land-based, marine shipboard, and aircraft). Predicting corrosion of metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions at the metal surface Disruption of passivating layers Degradation of coatings, cathodic protection, and treatment chemicals Microorganisms can also promote environmentally assisted cracking by accelerating the entry of hydrogen into the metal matrix and by producing metabolites...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interfere with the ability of the foundry to use the best techniques to produce reliable castings. Defect-free castings can be produced at a price. The multitude of process variables, such as molding mediums, binder, gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cause can usually be discovered. Functional failure of processes such as heat treatment, coating, plating, welding, mail delivery, or airline scheduling can be more complex, and the determination of the root cause is also more complex. In addition, the cause-and-effect relationship for processes may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment, that must be controlled to produce sound castings requires both a thorough understanding of the processes used and strict engineering supervision. The price of a casting often reflects the cost of such efforts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... forming secondary trimming operations. Creating a clever part design that is easy to thermoform but then cannot be trimmed cleanly and easily is inefficient and will cause quality issues during production, creating needless waste and scrap parts. Material Flow Perspective This consideration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the complexity of the component or machine, but the root cause can usually be discovered. Functional failure of processes such as heat treatment, coating, plating, welding, mail delivery, or airline scheduling can be more complex, and the determination of the root cause is also more complex. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Lean Six Sigma. Lean manufacturing focuses on process improvement and value-added operations to enhance productivity and reduce waste of all kinds. The most positive result of these new management systems is that organizations have responded to the higher expectations of consumers and users...