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volume fraction

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0089254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... One of the wedge-shaped middle rings fractured prior to having been fully torqued, preventing the sprocket from being locked to the shaft. “Woody” fracture features, as a result of decohesion between a high volume fractions of manganese sulfide stringers and the matrix, was revealed during examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... analysis (QIA) was carried out in a “Quantimet-600” (LEICA Imaging Systems Ltd., Cambridge, United Kingdom) model equipment to determine the volume fractions of different phases present in the failed roll samples. The volume fractions of graphite were determined from polished and unetched specimens, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...–3 km Sonipath-Jamuna river section during field pretesting at 126 kg/cm 2 (90% SMYS). Alloy Chemistry Optical microscopy was carried out with an MeF 2 model microscope. Longitudinal sections of pipe samples were polished and etched with 2% nital. The pearlite volume fraction was determined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... With increase in volume fraction ( V f ) of the filler or fiber, wear may increase, decrease, or show minima at some concentration, generally around 20 to 30%. Abrasive wear may increase with a decrease in modulus of elasticity of fiber or matrix as a result of higher debonding of fibers. If the filler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... As the weld metal contains a substantial inclusion content, a number of specimens were analyzed in the as-polished condition. Volume fractions, V v , of inclusions, delta ferrite and carbides were determined. For the delta ferrite, the mean free path, MFP, (mean edge-to-edge spacing) was also measured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was traversed over twenty random fields, and carbide volume fraction in each field was automatically estimated using proprietary application software. The amount of retained austenite present was, however, determined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques because this phase was not optically discernible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... turbine airfoils is the partial solutioning, rafting, and coalescence of the γ ′ precipitates due to exposure to the higher temperatures as shown in Fig. 15 . Remaining γ ′ volume fractions can be determined via metallographic image analysis at various regions of the airfoil. By knowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... surveys on liner sections ranged from 550 to 600 HB for liner 1 and from 600 to 650 HB for liner 2. These values are within the specified limits for this part. Retained austenite content as determined by x-ray diffraction with corrections applied for 30% estimated volume fraction of carbide was 24.6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ): ε f ≅ 2   ln L w ≈   ln 1 ρ where L is the void spacing, w is the void size, and ρ is the void volume fraction. Fig. 14 Backofen's model for fracture from holes. See text for discussion. Source: Ref 32 Models of void formation have been based on dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... predicts a strain to fracture ( Fig. 14 ): ε f ≅ 2 ln L w = ln 1 ρ where L is the void spacing, w is the void size, and ρ is the void volume fraction. Fig. 14 Backofen’s model for fracture from holes (see text for discussion). Source: Ref 32 Models of void...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welded joints. The conditions that favor the formation of austenite, such as high nitrogen content and low cooling rate, minimize the formation of Cr 2 N precipitates [ 6 ] and increase the volume fraction of austenite. The σ phase is formed as a consequence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are most commonly seen when the microstructure is single phase and/or contains only a small volume fraction of second phases or constituents. Then the dominant crack propagation path is in a large volume-fraction matrix phase and is unaffected by crack nucleation at second-phase interfaces or by cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of this Volume, while this article introduces the section on fracture. However, it should be remembered that some nonfracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and tubing. The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) N − k The term Δγ in is the inelastic shear strain range, Q sl is the activation energy for elevated-temperature slip, Q ox is the activation energy for stress-free oxidation, σ max is the maximum tensile stress of the TMF cycle, B is the volume over which the tensile stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... inclusion additives can improve their machinability ( Ref 21 ). Hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg AA 380 and AA 390 casting alloys contain large volume fractions of hard primary silicon phases. These silicon grains are much harder than other phases in the microstructure and exert an abrasive influence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... features ( Fig. 12b ), as a result of decohesion between a high volume fraction of manganese sulfide stringers and the matrix ( Fig. 13 ). The matrix fracture features showed ductile dimple rupture. Fig. 12 Crack (a) and broken-open fracture surface (b) of failed wedge-shaped middle tapered ring. 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... causes higher hardness, higher strength and lower elongation of the material. Casting pores were seen on the fracture surface, where their volume fraction was in the range of the standard [ 6 ], but the diameters were more than the allowable amount, to some extent. Also, deformation on the threads...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... length through Si particles was observed to be 0.16 in the vertical section fracture profile of a tensile fracture surface of chill cast A356 aluminum alloy having a volume fraction of Si particle equal to 0.074. In this case, as P f is significantly higher than the silicon particle volume fraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sulfide inclusion at origin. Fig. 13 Significant volume fraction of manganese sulfide inclusions in wedge-shaped tapered ring microstructure. Original magnification: 73 × Fig. 2 Problem-solving model Fig. 3 Typical time distribution of failures (“bathtub curve”) Fig...