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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by their CCT or TTT diagrams. Furthermore, dimensional changes are possible, depending on the carbon content and microstructural transformation product formed. Table 1 summarizes the atomic volumes of different microstructural components as a function of carbon content ( Ref 2 ). Table 2 provides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... axis. In a new blade without bolts the greatest stress at the same place and in the same direction is only 2.9 kgf/mm 2 . It can be concluded that the stresses in the microscopic volume were even greater since volume changes due to localised heating, cooling and transformation can give rise to internal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and the volume change accompanying the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Ductile steels will plastically flow to relieve these stresses. However, heat-treated high-carbon steels, such as the rail steel, deform very little. Therefore, residual stresses can build to sufficiently high levels to form cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure in a close-fitting assembly may occur because of the volume change that accompanies transformation. In addition to the carbon level and surface hardness, a carburized case is also characterized by its thickness or depth below the surface. Improper case depth can lead to some of the same types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (e.g., see “Control of Distortion in Tool Steels” in Heat Treating of Irons and Steels , Volume 4D of ASM Handbook , 2014). In heat treatments requiring rapid cooling or quenching, excessive warping can usually be reduced by changing the quenching conditions. In many instances, the orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... °C. Alloy Δ Volume Δ Mass Δ Density Δ Time Δ Nitrogen ΔV/V o Weight Change Attack Depth Comments (cm 3 ) (g) (g/cm 3 ) (hr) (wt%) (mg/cm 2 ) (mm) KHR35H HiSi 0.0033 0.007 −0.1334 364 0.0237 4.9653 0.0061 0.013 −0.2384 1198 1.4938 0.0434 9.0076 0.98...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... independent constants. Then E , G , and ν are related by: (Eq 33) E = G 2 ( 1 +   ν ) The volume change in a material is given by: (Eq 34) Δ V = ( ε x +   ε y +   ε z ) V = [ 1 − 2 ν E ( σ x +   σ y +   σ z...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., increased tendency toward cracking Transformation-induced stresses Transformation from austenite to martensite causes volume change. Increases in volume increase tendency toward distortion and cracking Controlled only by controlling carbon content, where: Δ V V × 100 = 1.68...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The analysis of the stress-strain relationships shows that there are only two independent constants. Then E , G , and ν are related by: (Eq 33) E = G 2 ( 1 + ν ) The volume change in a material is given by: (Eq 34) Δ V = ( ε x + ε y + ε z ) V = [ 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on planes normal to the tensile stresses, the material at the crack boundaries is subjected to shear stresses. This results in shear yielding, a form of plastic deformation that occurs with no volume change. A large amount of strain energy is dissipated by this process. Energy absorption by plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in vacuum. Welding generally requires the use of inert gas shielding to minimize hydrogen pickup. The hydride particles often have the form of platelets and show preferred orientation within the parent lattice, depending primarily on the metal or alloy composition. The large volume change associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... often have the form of platelets and show preferred orientation within the parent lattice, depending primarily on the metal or alloy composition. The large volume change associated with hydride formation leads to a strong interaction between the hydride-formation process and externally applied stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... article in this Volume, “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture.” In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region that is normal to the applied load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., as discussed in the article “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture” in this Volume. In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region, which is normal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , High-Temperature Corrosion of Technical Ceramics , Fordham R.J. , Ed., Elsevier Applied Science , 1990 , p 93 – 108 17. Lowrance K. , Refractory Lining Construction , Pneumatic Steelmaking, Volume 3 on Refractories , Rigaud M.A. and Landy R.A. , Ed., Iron and Steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... paradigm for business. With the business-culture changes that have occurred through the implementation of one or more of the aforementioned improvement systems, users in recent years have experienced, in general, improvement in all of these areas simultaneously. That translates to reduced product failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... grain size provides shorter grain boundary length or surface area of grains per unit volume to accommodate the segregating harmful species. Such segregation decreases the interfacial cohesive strength and changes the brittle fracture mode from a typical transgranular cleavage fracture to intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Prevention , Volume 11 of the ASM Handbook , 2002. Nevertheless, failures continue. Recalls of motor vehicles and consumer products are reported on a regular basis and tabulated on various websites. Building and bridge collapses are less common but still occur. Thus, the need for failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-rupture life. The specimen was electropolished before replication in a solution containing (by volume) 100 parts hydrochloric acid, 50 parts sulfuric acid, and 600 parts methanol. Transmission electron micrograph. 4000× Fig. 14 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in-depth coverage on specific types of fracture (processes such as ductile and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) can be found in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances...