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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electron imaging. Modern microscopes can allow the user to operate in either the high-vacuum conventional imaging mode or in the low-vacuum/variable-pressure mode, making them extremely flexible for all types of investigations. Low-voltage imaging, that is, less than 5 kV accelerating voltage, is also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) field emission instrument. Samples imaged at 10,000× Fig. 20 Affect of accelerating voltage on imaging. Sample is gold-coated ZnS powders imaged using (a) 25 kV and (b) 5 kV. Note enhanced surface information at 5 kV. Both 20,000× Fig. 21 Examination of a surface film at (a) 20 kV...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 1 Schematic of the electrolysis cell Each cell is provided with a voltage indicator. Any malfunctioning in the electrolysis is reflected in the voltage indicator lamps. In one such cell, the indicator showed a low potential difference. Dismantling of the cell revealed that the nickel anode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... data . In: International Pipeline Conference ASME , vol. 1 , p. 216 ( 1996 ) 10.1115/IPC1996-1826 2. Peabody A.W. : Peabody’s Control of Pipeline Corrosion , 2nd edn. , pp. 252 – 254 . NACE International ( 2001 ) 3. Kaiser B.A. : Lightning protection for pipeline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... concentration, solution cleanliness, temperature control, and voltage/amperage control. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in Metals , Fatigue and Fracture , Vol 19 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1996 , p 63 – 72 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353 Steel wires, produced from controlled cooled or patented wire rods by single or multipass cold drawing, have many engineering applications including the manufacture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... during welding. However, aluminum is very highly oxidizable at molten steel temperatures, so it often happens that some or much of the aluminum added to the steel ends up as an oxide rather than a nitride. The aluminum oxides are useless as grain-size controls. Aluminum oxides are not easily soluble...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been tested with steam from the auxiliary boilers. The boiler feed water was treated (in accordance with the nuclear plant steam chemistry requirements) with hydrazine for oxygen scavenging and ammonium hydroxide for pH control. The nuclear plant logbooks showed that ammonia up to 50 ppm and hydrazine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... from the same manufacturing lot was also recommended. A new batch of castings made using the recommended procedure revealed no hot tear cracks. The actuator castings were being torque tested to a torque of 365 N . m (3240 lbf . in.) during static quality control testing. Two castings failed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or subsurface imperfections and cracks, while methods such as radiography and ultrasound are capable of detecting imperfections within a part. Other methods are more suited for online monitoring, which is a quality-control function in production systems. Also, there are many NDE methods used for condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-control purposes has resulted in the development of “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems. These handheld systems, while lacking the precision and accuracy of SEM-based systems or traditional laboratory-based quantitative chemical analysis instruments, are nonetheless useful in obtaining a good and quick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the material by changes in the grey level of the image. X-ray mappings and line profiles for carbon, chromium, manganese, iron and nickel were made across the interdendritic regions, over the oxide/matrix interface, at an operating voltage of 15kV. In this investigation, transverse cross section areas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Shear Bands in Controlled Penetration Impact , Int. J. Impact Eng. , Vol. 11 ( No. 3 ), 1991 , p 305 – 321 19. Xie J.Q. , Bayoumi A.E. , and Zbib H.M. , Analytical and Experimental Study of Shear Localization in Chip Formation in Orthogonal Machining , J. Mater. Eng. Perform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with a Thermal Vector Case #7: Feed Pump Motor with Thermal Vector Case #8: Cracked Rotor Bars Case #9: Cracked End Rings Case #10: Rotor Eccentricity Case #11: Loose Base Case #12: A DC Motor and Bad SCR's (Silicon Controlled Rectifiers) Case #13: DC Motor Overheating Due to Unstable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-control program. Hydrogen sulfide gas is very aggressive to reinforced concrete structures in wastewater treatment plants. Figure 5 provides views of severe corrosion of a wastewater tunnel structure. Note the failed lining repairs. Structures of concern are sludge storage tanks, chambers, and head...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the case and core regions, the polished samples were etched in 3% nital (3 ml HNO 3 in 97 ml ethanol) and observed in a light microscope at 1000× magnification. For corroborating phase identity, Vickers microhardness tests were carried out in a pneumatically actuated, electronically controlled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in optical microscopy. For rapid identification of the chemical constituents in the various carbide species present, qualitative energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analysis was carried out in the SEM at 20 kV accelerating voltage and 1 × 10 −9 A probe current, using proprietary application software...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The turbine operator placed the synchronising plug in the socket on the public authority supply board and noted that the incoming and machine voltages were the same, i.e. the normal procedure for changing the source of supply was carried out. By this time the sparking at the commutator had increased...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microscope (SEM) equipped with EDAX Genesis APEX-type x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer, with low vacuum mode (chamber pressure of 60 Pa), accelerating voltage of 10 KV, AMP time of 51.2 μs, and collection time of 100 s. DSC-TGA analyses were conducted using Waters-TA SDT Q600 calorimeter under nitrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Cracking , Second Int. Conf. on Corrosion-Deformation Interactions , CDI '96, 24–26 Sept 1996 ( Nice, France ), Institute of Materials , 1997 , p 206 – 219 • McMahon C.J. Jr. , Diffusion-Controlled Brittle Fracture in Overheated Steels , Proc. R.I. Jaffee Memorial Symp., Conf. Clean...