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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 19 Collecting the visual examination evidence and summarizing it in a rational way More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (9-in.) crack was received for examination. Visual examination of the submitted panel revealed two cracks. One crack ran through six adjacent fastener holes. Sections of the beveled edges of the holes were missing and corrosion was evident. Visual examination of the fastener holes after separation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract A fuel-nozzle-support assembly showed transverse indications after fluorescent liquid-penetrant inspection of a repair-welded area at a fillet on the front side of the support neck adjacent to the mounting flange. Visual examination disclosed an irregular crack. The crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The 4340 steel main rotor yoke of a helicopter failed during a hovering exercise. Visual examination of the yoke revealed no evidence of gross external damage. Visual fracture surface examination, macrofractography, scanning electron micrography, and metallography of a section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Four nose wheels fabricated from 2014-T6 aluminum alloy and cold worked at the flange were examined. Visual examination showed that the failure started in the tube well area on the wheel with serial number 31. The failure initiated in the flange fillet on wheels with serial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Leakage from the top of a fire-extinguisher case, made of 1541 steel tubing and closed by spinning was observed during testing. Three small folds were observed on the surface by visual examination and one was sectioned. A very fine transverse fissure through the section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The rear wall tube section of a boiler that had been in service for approximately 38 years was removed and examined. Visual examination of the tube revealed a small bulge with a through-wall crack. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the bulged area consisted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Defects Magnetic particle testing 1055 UNS G10550 Fatigue fracture A bridge wheel on a crane fractured after 1 year of service. The wheel was forged from 1055 steel. The wheel fractured in the web between the hub and the rim. Investigation Visual examination of the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two 38 mm (1.5 in.) diam threaded stud bolts that were part of a steel mold die assembly from a plastics molding operation were examined to determine their serviceability. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a plain carbon steel that approximated 1045. Visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract An engine cylinder head failed after operating just 3.2 km (2 mi) because of coolant leakage through the exhaust port. Visual examination of the exhaust ports revealed a casting defect on the No. 7 exhaust-port wall. A 0.9x examination of an unpolished, unetched longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A 75 mm OD x 7.4 mm wall thickness carbon steel boiler tube ruptured. A substantial degree of corrosion on the water-side surface leaving a rough area in the immediate vicinity of the rupture was revealed by visual examination. Decarburization and extensive discontinuous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... where cracking started was revealed by visual examination of the fracture region. Almost 50% of the fracture surface was found to contain beach marks (indicative of fatigue failure) while the remainder contained cleavage facets. A medium-coarse acicular as-forged structure was revealed by metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the catapult system. Some loads could be absorbed however, when the aircraft is subjected to G loads. Visual examination of the part revealed that cracks through the wall thickness initiated on the inner walls of the fixture. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron optical examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A tool used to stretch reinforcement wires in prestressed concrete failed. All eight individual jaws were broken. Visual examination of the fracture surfaces indicated that about half of the broken parts had a partially dendritic appearance. Further, fracture surfaces near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract The 11 mm diam 8 x 19 fiber-core rope, constructed from improved plow steel wire, on the cleaning-line crane failed while lifting a normal load of coils after five weeks of service. Several broken wires and fraying of the fiber core were revealed by visual examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A stainless steel flexible connector failed after a short period of service. Visual examination of the failed part revealed that a fracture had occurred in the thin-walled stainless steel bellows brazed into the flanges at each end. Surface examination by SEM fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Welded low-carbon steel bomb fins were rejected because of poor weld practice. Visual and metallographic examination revealed that the resistance plug welds that attach the outer skin to the inner spar displayed inadequate weld penetration. Recommended changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... weatherproofing. On-site visual examination and magnetic testing indicated severe external corrosion of most of the piping. The system showed extensive cracking in weld HAZ. One specimen indicated that corrosion extended to a depth of 3.2 mm and cracks were seen at the edge of the cover bead and in the HAZ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0051294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract An agricultural tine, which is a relatively large double torsion spring with outer legs that are used to sweep through hay or other crops and turn them over, had failed. It was made hard-drawn carbon steel. Bending fatigue was revealed by visual examination to be almost...