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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Failure analysis is an investigative process that uses visual observations of features present on a failed component fracture surface combined with component and environmental conditions to determine the root cause of a failure. The primary means of recording the conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Failure analysis is an investigative process in which the visual observations of features present on a failed component and the surrounding environment are essential in determining the root cause of a failure. This article reviews the basic photographic principles and techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... products are evident on the intergranular facets. 2690x Investigation Visual analysis of the hardware showed that two of the three bearings were cracked. One of these two bearings, designated bearing 1 in Fig. 1(a) , contained two separate cracks. One of these cracks took the path shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A nylon oil-lubricated driving gear showed pitting upon visual inspection. The pitting produced numerous surface microcracks. Further investigation (visual inspection and 37x images) supported the conclusion that failure occurred in association with large-scale fragmentation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and the steel was Grade P22, a 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy steel. Visual and metallurgical evaluations showed the cracking in the west superheater outlet header was caused by thermal fatigue. Tube holes had served as a preferential site for thermal fatigue cracking. Electric power generation Overheating Piping...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., visually inspected, and rotated 120 deg every three weeks to ensure that no single location was overheated for a prolonged period of time. Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, and x-ray analysis, 60x micrograph etched with 10% oxalic acid) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... injection molded from a 30% glass-fiber and mineral-reinforced nylon 12 resin. Investigation, including visual inspection, 118x SEM images, 9x micrographs, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, micro-FTIR in the ATR mode, and TGA, supported the conclusion that the filter component failed as a result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The rear wall tube section of a boiler that had been in service for approximately 38 years was removed and examined. Visual examination of the tube revealed a small bulge with a through-wall crack. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the bulged area consisted of a few...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the steam reportedly occurred a few months prior to the inspection. Pertinent Specifications The blade was reportedly manufactured from DIN X20Cr13 stainless steel, a martensitic steel with approximately 13% chromium. Visual Examination Visual inspection of the blade under a stereomicroscope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... had not fractured, but exhibited circumferential cracks on the surface of the central zone. Visual surface examination and metallographic and chemical analyses were performed on the specimens. Cracking was attributed primarily to poor heat treatment, resulting in a brittle grain-boundary network...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of these cracks, which had penetrated the pipe wall, were responsible for leaks detected in a hydrostatic test performed during a general inspection after seven years of service. Investigation (visual inspection, visual and ultrasonic weld examination, water analysis, and chemical analysis) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... discontinuities, metallurgical evaluation of the discontinuities, analysis of any failure modes, and determination of the best repair techniques. The welds were made with prequalified joints in accordance with AWS D1.1-77 and required only visual inspection. More sensitive inspection methods were applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location of the bulge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The 4340 steel main rotor yoke of a helicopter failed during a hovering exercise. Visual examination of the yoke revealed no evidence of gross external damage. Visual fracture surface examination, macrofractography, scanning electron micrography, and metallography of a section cut from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Failed portions of a 4140 steel axle from a prototype urban transit vehicle were examined to determine the cause of failure. The testing procedures included visual examination, macrofractography, metallography, chemical analysis, and hardness and tensile testing. The analysis showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron oxides on all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two 38 mm (1.5 in.) diam threaded stud bolts that were part of a steel mold die assembly from a plastics molding operation were examined to determine their serviceability. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a plain carbon steel that approximated 1045. Visual examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for about 14 years. Specimen Selection The entire impeller element was available for examination and sectioning. Visual Examination of General Physical Features The damaged impeller, which is shown as received for analysis in Fig. 1 , was visually examined. Apparent cracking was observed over...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the seacoast. A complete check was then made, both visually and with the aid of a low-power magnifying glass, of all coupling nuts of this type on the missile. Investigation (visual inspection, spectrographic and chemical analysis, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., respectively. Visual examination of the bellows revealed cracks in heavily cold-worked areas (both inside and outside) and considerable corrosion. SEM analysis showed a classical intergranular failure pattern with microcracking. The threaded tie rod microstructure contained spheroidized carbide that was more...