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viscoelasticity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the viscoelastic behavior of plastics in their solid state only, from the standpoint of the material deforming without fracturing. The consequences of viscoelasticity on the mechanical properties of plastics are described, especially in terms of time-dependencies...
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 1 Five regions of viscoelastic behavior for a linear, amorphous polymer. Also illustrated are the effects of crystallinity (dashed line) and cross linking (dotted line). More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 3 Illustration of viscoelastic behavior. Both viscous and elastic natures are observed. (a) Spring and dashpot in (a) series, Maxwell model and (b) parallel, Kelvin-Voigt model. Note that for viscoelastic materials, force depends on both deformation and rate of deformation and vice-versa. More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 12 Viscoelastic regions of polymers More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Creep-recovery response of a viscoelastic material. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 5 Representative diagram of (a) constant stress applied to a material, and resultant (b) solid elastic strain, (c) purely viscous liquid strain, (d) viscoelastic solid strain response. The colors represent: (red) as “solid elastic” material response; (green) as “purely viscous liquid More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 17 Mechanical models and typical behavior. (a) Ideal Hookean solid (σ = E ε; spring model; elastic response). (b) Ideal viscous Newtonian liquid (σ = η ε ̇ ; dashpot model). (c) Maxwell’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic material. (d) Voigt’s mechanical model for a viscoelastic More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 4 Representative diagram of (a) constant strain applied to a material, and resultant (b) solid elastic stress, (c) nearly purely viscous fluid stress, and (d) viscoelastic solid stress response. The colors represent: (red) as “solid elastic” material response; (green) as “nearly purely More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... thermogram showed a melting transition attributed to a hydrocarbon-based impact modifier. The conclusion was that the control and failed clips had been produced from two distinctly different resins. It appeared that the material used to produce the failed clips had different viscoelastic properties, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with various regions of the viscosity curve. It discusses the concept of shear sensitivity, the nature of viscoelastic properties, and the electrical, chemical, and optical properties of different plastics. It also reviews plastic processing operations, including extrusion, injection molding, and thermoforming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article briefly introduces some commonly used methods for mechanical testing. It describes the test methods and provides comparative data for the mechanical property tests. In addition, creep testing and dynamic mechanical analyses of viscoelastic plastics are also briefly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crazing and fracture in polymeric materials, with a review of the behavior of the elastic modulus as a function of temperature or time parameters, emphasizing the importance of the viscoelastic nature of their deformation and fracture. The discussion covers the behavior of polymers under stress, provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the designer to consider more than just the basic loading and stress concentrations of real designs. Viscoelastic performance of parts is also a key consideration when defining the expected lifetime of a part or assembly. As discussed previously and in the article “ Viscoelasticity of Plastics ” in this Volume...
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 4 Crack-growth progression in a miniature single-edge notched-bend sample of polycarbonate (PC). The series of crack-growth images were taken under a static force, resulting in the capture of viscoelastic crack growth in PC. (a) A lone craze fibril is observed in the crack mouth More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... forces, mainly over the long term (several years), is of great importance. The mechanisms that govern the creep failure in polymer materials are more complex than those identified for metals and ceramics. This is explained by the viscoelastic properties of plastics, their long and mobile chain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., it is usually necessary to use multiple Maxwell or Kelvin–Voigt elements to obtain an accurate model of the observed behavior. Fig. 3 Illustration of viscoelastic behavior. Both viscous and elastic natures are observed. (a) Spring and dashpot in (a) series, Maxwell model and (b) parallel, Kelvin-Voigt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... weight, crystallinity, degree of cross linking, and backbone molecular structure of the polymer ( Ref 26 – 60 ). Polymers are also prone to time-dependent behavior, and fatigue characterization must incorporate viscoelastic effects; such effects may include sustained loading, sensitivity to peak stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Polymers are viscoelastic, that is, they respond to stress as if they were a combination of elastic solids and viscous fluids, but not always in a stable 50–50 proportion. The balance of the storage and loss components of a polymer is important in determining its melt processibility and functionality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ultrasonics linear viscoelastic region critical molecular weight number-average molecular weight modulus of toughness weight-average molecular weight polydispersity index Z-average molecular weight 702 / Reference Information MBS methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene MDA MDAB methylenedianiline 4,40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... loading limits, and loading waveform. These features appear to produce failure characteristics not otherwise encountered. Additionally, due to the viscoelastic or time-dependent nature of the polymers, significant energy dissipation occurs under pure fatigue or combined creep-fatigue loading conditions...