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vinyl ester resins

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... occurring in some composites when they are exposed to moisture. This phenomenon is a result of the osmotic pressures which build up when diffusing water increasingly dilutes ionic species at the fiber-matrix interface ( Ref 3 ). Damage is common in polyester composites and vinyl ester resins. Effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... resistance values, although such materials would have lower stiffness. Figure 1 shows the variation of notched impact with flexural modulus for a typical range of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins. Some stiffness can be recovered by adding fibrous reinforcement, but the reinforcement can also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Thermosets Epoxy EP Melamine ME Phenolic PF Unsaturated polyester UP Polyurethane PUR Vinyl ester VE The selection process or narrowing of candidate materials starts by asking key questions or listing the properties that the plastics must satisfy. At each question, plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and glass transition temperature. It also provides information on polyimide and bismaleimide resin systems. Representative examples of different types of engineering thermoplastics are discussed primarily in terms of structure and thermal properties. chemical composition elastomeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Engineering plastics all have, as their principal constituent, one or more synthetic polymer resins and almost universally contain additives. Additives, which have much smaller molecules than polymers, provide color, flexibility, rigidity, flame resistance, weathering resistance, and/or processibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... include phenolic resins, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl esters, polyurethanes, cyanate esters, bismaleimides, addition polyimides, and difunctional acrylates and methacrylates. Thermoset resins are formulated to achieve the desired processing conditions as well as the desired final fully cured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are sectioned carefully, mounted in a resin compound, ground, and polished to facilitate metallographic examination. The prepared cross sections are called metallurgical mounts and are prepared using standard metallographic techniques. Mounts are examined in the unetched and etched conditions. In the unetched...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The descriptions of the analytical techniques are supplemented by a series of case studies that include pertinent visual examination results and the corresponding images that aid in the characterization of the failures. The article describes the methods used for determining the molecular weight of a plastic resin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the sample or impregnating the mount with resin after preparation can retain the scale for examination. Additional information is provided in the articles “Practices in Failure Analysis” and “Metallographic Techniques in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Corrosion Testing Corrosion testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... failures can be traced back to the processor simply using the wrong material. If mixing of color, additives, or regrind is required, the processor must make sure that the proper mixing ratio is maintained and that the additives are thoroughly mixed into the virgin resin. Appropriate use of automated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to go through 10,000+ kg (22,000+ lb) of resin, so careful material and rheological characterization with each shipment is recommended to monitor for lot-to-lot variations. Equipment Overview All extruders use common equipment, including the drive motor, hopper, barrel, screw(s), and the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ). The term engineering resin or engineering plastic usually refers only to thermoplastics, which can be molded and remolded to shape, and excludes thermosets such as epoxy resins that cure into an infusible solid. Some rubbers (e.g., polyurethanes) that are cured or vulcanized are nevertheless classed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at the same time exhibiting a higher viscosity while the system is stable to prevent any settling or sagging. Modern rheology additives include bodying agents, puffing agents, waxy organic esters, organoclays, amine soaps, metallic ricinolates, and modified hydrogenated castor waxes. With increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... reduce the heat capacity associated with thermal transitions. It is difficult to detect the glass transition in FRPs using DSC. Separating fiber fragments from the matrix resin is generally not an option. The T g can also be determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In DMA, the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., metallic particles, and others that are added to plastic resins. Fillers are discussed in more detail in the article “ Fundamentals of Polymer Additives ” in this Volume. Two additional signals generated by electron beams that are valuable in the analysis of materials are Auger electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperature in semicrystalline polymers ( Ref 10 ). The situation is somewhat different in cross-linked or thermoset processing. In this case, solidification takes place at the cure temperature, because cross links enable the matrix to support stress ( Ref 10 ). Unsaturated polyester and epoxy resins...