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variability

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Central composite design using three variables More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Example: generating random variable values More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Variable-amplitude loading data. Source: Ref 6 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Streamlines for water in pipe of variable diameter. Source: Ref 24 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 18 Spin-pitcrack growth history of bolt hole crack in disk 3 using variable-amplitude loading. More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 18 Nonconductive material imaged using (a) conventional imaging, (b) variable-pressure imaging with 20 Pa (0.15 torr) gas pressure, and (c) using 270 Pa (2.0 torr) gas pressure More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 3 Examples of variable-amplitude fatigue loading. (a) Single high-cycle superimposed loading. (b) Multiple high-cycle superimposed loading. (c) Variable multiple high-cycle superimposed loading. Adapted from Ref 3 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency of vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article provides an outline of the issues to consider in performing a probabilistic life assessment. It begins with an historical background and introduces the most common methods. The article then describes those methods covering subjects such as the required random variable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamental variables involved in fatigue-life assessment, which describe the effects and interaction of material behavior, geometry, and stress history on the life of a component. It compares the safe-life approach with the damage-tolerance approach, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... presents the variables of interest for a rotating shaft and the load-carrying capacity and surface roughness of bearings. Grooves and depressions are often provided in bearing surfaces to supply or feed lubricant to the load-carrying regions. The article explains the effect of contaminants in bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the historical background, uncertainties in structural parameters, classifications, and application areas of probabilistic analysis. It provides a discussion on the basic definition of random variables, some common distribution functions used in engineering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... metal in the bores, and a variable pattern of residual stress. Bursting strength Electric generators Forgings Retaining rings Fe-0.65C-8Ni-8Mn-4Cr Intergranular fracture Brittle fracture The year 1954 seems to have been a peculiarly unlucky one for large electrical generators in North...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... residual stresses, a mixed microstructure, inclusions, and gross grain coarsening. These synergistic factors resulted from extreme heat input during fillet welding. Recommendations included altering the welding variables such as current, voltage, and travel speed to substantially reduce the heat input...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... variable of the material that may promote adverse reactions. Body piercing ISO 5832-1 Fe-17Cr-8Ni Fe-16Cr-8Ni-2.3Mo Fe-17Cr-10Ni-2.4Mo 100% Nb Pitting corrosion (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Surface treatment related failures The body piercing of the upper portions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., as well as the dependence of the viscoelastic character of a plastic on chemical, physical, and compositional variables. By examining the viscoelastic behavior of plastics, the information obtained are then applied in situations in which it may be important to anticipate the long-term properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The drive shaft in a marine propulsion system broke, stranding a large vessel along the Canadian seacoast. The shaft was made from quenched and tempered low-alloy steel. Fractographic investigation revealed that the shaft failed under low rotating-bending variable stress. Fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the basis of quantitative fractography results is probably closer to the mean SII. Simulation Tests Spin-pit simulation tests were conducted on fully bladed disks in vacuum. Details of the spin-pit test apparatus are given in Ref 6 . Two loading sequences (constant amplitude and variable amplitude...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 17 Fatigue failure of a nonconductive polyvinyl chloride pipe imaged in the uncoated state using a variable-pressure microscope More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 1 Fish-bone diagram showing the systems, methodologies, equipment, environment, and human factors that can affect variability in mechanical testing More